Limits...
First Report of Ciguatoxins in Two Starfish Species: Ophidiaster ophidianus and Marthasterias glacialis.

Silva M, Rodriguez I, Barreiro A, Kaufmann M, Isabel Neto A, Hassouani M, Sabour B, Alfonso A, Botana LM, Vasconcelos V - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: We detected differences regarding uptake values by organisms and geographical location.Toxin amounts were significant, showing the importance and the need for continuity of these studies to gain more knowledge about the prevalence of these toxins, in order to better access human health risk.In addition, we suggest monitoring of these toxins should be extended to other vectors, starfish being a good alternative for protecting and accessing human health risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto 4619-007, Portugal. marisasilva17@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a syndrome caused by the ingestion of fish contaminated with Ciguatoxins (CTXs). These phycotoxins are produced mainly by dinoflagellates that belong to the genus Gambierdiscus that are transformed in more toxic forms in predatory fish guts, and are more present in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean areas. It is estimated that CFP causes per year more than 10,000 intoxications worldwide. With the rise of water temperature and anthropogenic intervention, it is important to study the prevalence of CFP in more temperate waters. Through inter- and subtidal sampling, 22 species of organisms were collected, in Madeira and Azores archipelagos and in the northwestern Moroccan coast, during September of 2012 and June and July of 2013. A total of 94 samples of 22 different species of bivalves, gastropods, echinoderms and crustaceans where analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectometry-Ion Trap-Time of Flight (UPLC-MS-IT-TOF) and Ultra Performance Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Our main aim was to detect new vectors and ascertain if there were some geographical differences. We detected for the first time putative CTXs in echinoderms, in two starfish species-M. glacialis and O. ophidianus. We detected differences regarding uptake values by organisms and geographical location. Toxin amounts were significant, showing the importance and the need for continuity of these studies to gain more knowledge about the prevalence of these toxins, in order to better access human health risk. In addition, we suggest monitoring of these toxins should be extended to other vectors, starfish being a good alternative for protecting and accessing human health risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of the sampling points: (A) São Miguel island coast, Azores archipelago: 1, Cruzeiro; 2, Mosteiros; 3, Étar; 4, São Roque; 5, Lagoa; and 6, Caloura. (B) Madeira island coast: 1, Reis Magos and 2, Caniçal. (C) Northwestern Moroccan coast: 1, Casablanca Corniche; 2, El Jadida Haras; 3, El Jadida Sâada; 4, Sidi Bouzid; 5, Mrizika; and 6, Oualidia.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591666&req=5

toxins-07-03740-f002: Location of the sampling points: (A) São Miguel island coast, Azores archipelago: 1, Cruzeiro; 2, Mosteiros; 3, Étar; 4, São Roque; 5, Lagoa; and 6, Caloura. (B) Madeira island coast: 1, Reis Magos and 2, Caniçal. (C) Northwestern Moroccan coast: 1, Casablanca Corniche; 2, El Jadida Haras; 3, El Jadida Sâada; 4, Sidi Bouzid; 5, Mrizika; and 6, Oualidia.

Mentions: In this work, a total of 94 samples were analyzed for CTX plus its analogues from 14 sampling points distributed in three different locations: Madeira Island (Figure 2), São Miguel Island (Figure 3) and along the northwestern Moroccan Coast (Figure 4). Twenty-two species of benthic organisms, including bivalves (mussels), gastropods (sea-snails, sea-slugs and limpets), echinoderms (starfishes, sea-urchins and sea-cucumbers) and crustaceans (barnacles) were collected. The decision to sample these particular species was linked to the fact we wanted to screen edible and commercially important species and inedible species for their importance in the trophic chain. The number of samples collected and average number of specimens needed to set a pooled sample are detailed (Table 1).


First Report of Ciguatoxins in Two Starfish Species: Ophidiaster ophidianus and Marthasterias glacialis.

Silva M, Rodriguez I, Barreiro A, Kaufmann M, Isabel Neto A, Hassouani M, Sabour B, Alfonso A, Botana LM, Vasconcelos V - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Location of the sampling points: (A) São Miguel island coast, Azores archipelago: 1, Cruzeiro; 2, Mosteiros; 3, Étar; 4, São Roque; 5, Lagoa; and 6, Caloura. (B) Madeira island coast: 1, Reis Magos and 2, Caniçal. (C) Northwestern Moroccan coast: 1, Casablanca Corniche; 2, El Jadida Haras; 3, El Jadida Sâada; 4, Sidi Bouzid; 5, Mrizika; and 6, Oualidia.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591666&req=5

toxins-07-03740-f002: Location of the sampling points: (A) São Miguel island coast, Azores archipelago: 1, Cruzeiro; 2, Mosteiros; 3, Étar; 4, São Roque; 5, Lagoa; and 6, Caloura. (B) Madeira island coast: 1, Reis Magos and 2, Caniçal. (C) Northwestern Moroccan coast: 1, Casablanca Corniche; 2, El Jadida Haras; 3, El Jadida Sâada; 4, Sidi Bouzid; 5, Mrizika; and 6, Oualidia.
Mentions: In this work, a total of 94 samples were analyzed for CTX plus its analogues from 14 sampling points distributed in three different locations: Madeira Island (Figure 2), São Miguel Island (Figure 3) and along the northwestern Moroccan Coast (Figure 4). Twenty-two species of benthic organisms, including bivalves (mussels), gastropods (sea-snails, sea-slugs and limpets), echinoderms (starfishes, sea-urchins and sea-cucumbers) and crustaceans (barnacles) were collected. The decision to sample these particular species was linked to the fact we wanted to screen edible and commercially important species and inedible species for their importance in the trophic chain. The number of samples collected and average number of specimens needed to set a pooled sample are detailed (Table 1).

Bottom Line: We detected differences regarding uptake values by organisms and geographical location.Toxin amounts were significant, showing the importance and the need for continuity of these studies to gain more knowledge about the prevalence of these toxins, in order to better access human health risk.In addition, we suggest monitoring of these toxins should be extended to other vectors, starfish being a good alternative for protecting and accessing human health risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto 4619-007, Portugal. marisasilva17@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a syndrome caused by the ingestion of fish contaminated with Ciguatoxins (CTXs). These phycotoxins are produced mainly by dinoflagellates that belong to the genus Gambierdiscus that are transformed in more toxic forms in predatory fish guts, and are more present in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean areas. It is estimated that CFP causes per year more than 10,000 intoxications worldwide. With the rise of water temperature and anthropogenic intervention, it is important to study the prevalence of CFP in more temperate waters. Through inter- and subtidal sampling, 22 species of organisms were collected, in Madeira and Azores archipelagos and in the northwestern Moroccan coast, during September of 2012 and June and July of 2013. A total of 94 samples of 22 different species of bivalves, gastropods, echinoderms and crustaceans where analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectometry-Ion Trap-Time of Flight (UPLC-MS-IT-TOF) and Ultra Performance Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Our main aim was to detect new vectors and ascertain if there were some geographical differences. We detected for the first time putative CTXs in echinoderms, in two starfish species-M. glacialis and O. ophidianus. We detected differences regarding uptake values by organisms and geographical location. Toxin amounts were significant, showing the importance and the need for continuity of these studies to gain more knowledge about the prevalence of these toxins, in order to better access human health risk. In addition, we suggest monitoring of these toxins should be extended to other vectors, starfish being a good alternative for protecting and accessing human health risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus