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Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan.

Puilingi CG, Kudo Y, Cho Y, Konoki K, Yotsu-Yamashita M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh.Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus.TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555, Japan. clyde.puilingi@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus collected in the Solomon Islands were investigated using high resolution LC-MS. The toxin profiles of the same two species of pufferfish from Okinawa, Japan were also examined for comparison. TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh. Due to higher TTX concentrations (51.0 and 28.7 µg/g at highest) detected in the skin of the two species from the Solomon Islands (saxitoxin was <0.02 µg/g), these species should be banned from consumption. Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus. TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin.

No MeSH data available.


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The structures of TTX and its analogues.
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toxins-07-03436-f001: The structures of TTX and its analogues.

Mentions: Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a well-studied neurotoxin known for its distribution in pufferfish [1] and marine invertebrates such as snails [2], crabs [3], starfish [4], blue-ringed octopus [5], and sea slugs [6]. Recently, TTX was also detected in bivalve mollusks: New Zealand clams [7], mussels and oysters in England [8], and also in Greek shellfish [9]. Generally, TTX blocks the voltage-gated sodium ion channels, incapacitating nerve conduction and muscle action potentials, causing progressive paralysis and death due to failure of the respiratory system [10,11]. TTX, as the primary agent of pufferfish poisoning, is reported to be produced by marine bacteria and accumulated in the pufferfish via the food chain [12,13]. TTX in newts was reported to be an excellent defense strategy to ward off predators [14], and TTX is used to capture mobile prey by flatworms in Guam [15]. We have found various TTX analogues (Figure 1) which can be further classified into (1) hemilactal type analogues, (2) 5-deoxy-10,7-lactone type analogues, (3) 4,9- and 4,4a-anhydro type analogues and (4) tetrodonic acid type analogue [16,17]. Based on the structures of these analogues, we predicted a stepwise oxidative pathway of TTX in marine animals [17]. Additionally, we recently found C5–C10 directly bonded TTX analogues in newts, suggesting a monoterpene origin of TTX [18].


Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan.

Puilingi CG, Kudo Y, Cho Y, Konoki K, Yotsu-Yamashita M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

The structures of TTX and its analogues.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591647&req=5

toxins-07-03436-f001: The structures of TTX and its analogues.
Mentions: Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a well-studied neurotoxin known for its distribution in pufferfish [1] and marine invertebrates such as snails [2], crabs [3], starfish [4], blue-ringed octopus [5], and sea slugs [6]. Recently, TTX was also detected in bivalve mollusks: New Zealand clams [7], mussels and oysters in England [8], and also in Greek shellfish [9]. Generally, TTX blocks the voltage-gated sodium ion channels, incapacitating nerve conduction and muscle action potentials, causing progressive paralysis and death due to failure of the respiratory system [10,11]. TTX, as the primary agent of pufferfish poisoning, is reported to be produced by marine bacteria and accumulated in the pufferfish via the food chain [12,13]. TTX in newts was reported to be an excellent defense strategy to ward off predators [14], and TTX is used to capture mobile prey by flatworms in Guam [15]. We have found various TTX analogues (Figure 1) which can be further classified into (1) hemilactal type analogues, (2) 5-deoxy-10,7-lactone type analogues, (3) 4,9- and 4,4a-anhydro type analogues and (4) tetrodonic acid type analogue [16,17]. Based on the structures of these analogues, we predicted a stepwise oxidative pathway of TTX in marine animals [17]. Additionally, we recently found C5–C10 directly bonded TTX analogues in newts, suggesting a monoterpene origin of TTX [18].

Bottom Line: TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh.Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus.TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555, Japan. clyde.puilingi@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus collected in the Solomon Islands were investigated using high resolution LC-MS. The toxin profiles of the same two species of pufferfish from Okinawa, Japan were also examined for comparison. TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh. Due to higher TTX concentrations (51.0 and 28.7 µg/g at highest) detected in the skin of the two species from the Solomon Islands (saxitoxin was <0.02 µg/g), these species should be banned from consumption. Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus. TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus