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Identification of chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum heitzii stem bark and their insecticidal activity against the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

Moussavi N, Malterud KE, Mikolo B, Dawes D, Chandre F, Corbel V, Massamba D, Overgaard HJ, Wangensteen H - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: Isolated compounds were tested for toxicity towards adult female An. gambiae mosquitoes and for larvicidal effects towards An. gambiae.None of the other compounds were toxic to adults, but caryophyllene oxide and sesamin exhibited moderate larvicidal effects (LD50 > 150 μg/ml).The toxicity of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract to An. gambiae is mostly due to pellitorine, although interactions between pellitorine and other, inactive constituents may enhance the activity of the extract.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Section Pharmacognosy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway. nastaranmoussavi@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Zanthoxylum heitzii bark extracts have insecticidal properties and have been reported to be used against malaria in Western Africa. Previously, it has been shown that a hexane extract of the bark is toxic to adult females of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, a malaria vector. As part of our project on the control of malaria vectors using plant extracts, the phytochemistry of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract has been investigated with the aim to identify the major components with adulticidal and larvicidal effects on An. gambiae.

Methods: Z. heitzii stem bark was extracted with hexane, and the extract was fractionated to isolate major components from the bark, identified by NMR spectroscopy. Isolated compounds were tested for toxicity towards adult female An. gambiae mosquitoes and for larvicidal effects towards An. gambiae.

Results: The alkaloid dihydronitidine, the sesquiterpenoid caryophyllene oxide, the amide pellitorine and the lignan sesamin were identified as the major constituents in Z. heitzii bark. Pellitorine was toxic to both adult insects (LD50 50 ng/mg insect) and larvae (LD50 13 μg/ml). None of the other compounds were toxic to adults, but caryophyllene oxide and sesamin exhibited moderate larvicidal effects (LD50 > 150 μg/ml). A mixture of the four compounds in the same ratio as in the hexane extract showed higher toxicity (LD50 34 ng/mg insect) towards adult insects than the pure compounds.

Conclusion: The toxicity of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract to An. gambiae is mostly due to pellitorine, although interactions between pellitorine and other, inactive constituents may enhance the activity of the extract.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow scheme for extraction and isolation of compounds from Zanthoxylum heitzii bark. Abbreviations: VF: VersaFlash chromatography; CA-TLC: centrifugally accelerated thin layer chromatography; DCM: dichloromethane; EtOAc: ethyl acetate
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Fig1: Flow scheme for extraction and isolation of compounds from Zanthoxylum heitzii bark. Abbreviations: VF: VersaFlash chromatography; CA-TLC: centrifugally accelerated thin layer chromatography; DCM: dichloromethane; EtOAc: ethyl acetate

Mentions: The bark was air-dried and milled in a knife mill (4 mm sieve). Of the powdered bark, aliquots of ca 300 g were extracted with 3 liter portions of hexane in a Soxhlet extractor for 10 h. After cooling to room temperature, the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator, and the dry extracts weighed. Average yield of extract was ca 1.9 % (w/w). A scheme of the extraction and fractionation processes is shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 1


Identification of chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum heitzii stem bark and their insecticidal activity against the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

Moussavi N, Malterud KE, Mikolo B, Dawes D, Chandre F, Corbel V, Massamba D, Overgaard HJ, Wangensteen H - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Flow scheme for extraction and isolation of compounds from Zanthoxylum heitzii bark. Abbreviations: VF: VersaFlash chromatography; CA-TLC: centrifugally accelerated thin layer chromatography; DCM: dichloromethane; EtOAc: ethyl acetate
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591583&req=5

Fig1: Flow scheme for extraction and isolation of compounds from Zanthoxylum heitzii bark. Abbreviations: VF: VersaFlash chromatography; CA-TLC: centrifugally accelerated thin layer chromatography; DCM: dichloromethane; EtOAc: ethyl acetate
Mentions: The bark was air-dried and milled in a knife mill (4 mm sieve). Of the powdered bark, aliquots of ca 300 g were extracted with 3 liter portions of hexane in a Soxhlet extractor for 10 h. After cooling to room temperature, the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator, and the dry extracts weighed. Average yield of extract was ca 1.9 % (w/w). A scheme of the extraction and fractionation processes is shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Isolated compounds were tested for toxicity towards adult female An. gambiae mosquitoes and for larvicidal effects towards An. gambiae.None of the other compounds were toxic to adults, but caryophyllene oxide and sesamin exhibited moderate larvicidal effects (LD50 > 150 μg/ml).The toxicity of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract to An. gambiae is mostly due to pellitorine, although interactions between pellitorine and other, inactive constituents may enhance the activity of the extract.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Section Pharmacognosy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway. nastaranmoussavi@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Zanthoxylum heitzii bark extracts have insecticidal properties and have been reported to be used against malaria in Western Africa. Previously, it has been shown that a hexane extract of the bark is toxic to adult females of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, a malaria vector. As part of our project on the control of malaria vectors using plant extracts, the phytochemistry of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract has been investigated with the aim to identify the major components with adulticidal and larvicidal effects on An. gambiae.

Methods: Z. heitzii stem bark was extracted with hexane, and the extract was fractionated to isolate major components from the bark, identified by NMR spectroscopy. Isolated compounds were tested for toxicity towards adult female An. gambiae mosquitoes and for larvicidal effects towards An. gambiae.

Results: The alkaloid dihydronitidine, the sesquiterpenoid caryophyllene oxide, the amide pellitorine and the lignan sesamin were identified as the major constituents in Z. heitzii bark. Pellitorine was toxic to both adult insects (LD50 50 ng/mg insect) and larvae (LD50 13 μg/ml). None of the other compounds were toxic to adults, but caryophyllene oxide and sesamin exhibited moderate larvicidal effects (LD50 > 150 μg/ml). A mixture of the four compounds in the same ratio as in the hexane extract showed higher toxicity (LD50 34 ng/mg insect) towards adult insects than the pure compounds.

Conclusion: The toxicity of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract to An. gambiae is mostly due to pellitorine, although interactions between pellitorine and other, inactive constituents may enhance the activity of the extract.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus