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Feeding on resistant rice leads to enhanced expression of defender against apoptotic cell death (OoDAD1) in the Asian rice gall midge.

Sinha DK, Atray I, Bentur JS, Nair S - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast, expression in maggots feeding on RP2068 (resistant host) showed a steep increase of more than 8-fold at 24 hai and this level was sustained at 48, 72 and 96 hai when compared with the level in maggots feeding on Jaya at 24 hai.Recombinant OoDAD1, expressed in E. coli cells, when injected into rice seedlings induced a hypersensitive response (HR) in the resistant rice host, RP2068, but not in the susceptible rice variety, Jaya.The results indicate that the expression of OoDAD1 is triggered in the feeding maggots probably due to the host resistance response and therefore, is likely an important molecule in the initial stages of the interaction between the midge and its rice host.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110 067, India. deepak22sinha@yahoo.co.in.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a destructive insect pest of rice. Gall midge infestation in rice triggers either compatible or incompatible interactions leading to survival or mortality of the feeding maggots, respectively. In incompatible interactions, generation of plant allelochemicals/defense molecules and/or inability of the maggots to continue feeding on the host initiate(s) apoptosis within the maggots. Unraveling these molecular events, triggered within the maggots as a response to feeding on resistant hosts, will enable us to obtain a better understanding of host resistance. The present study points towards the likely involvement of a defender against apoptotic cell death gene (DAD1) in the insect in response to the host defense.

Results: The cDNA coding for the DAD1 orthologue in the rice gall midge (OoDAD1) consisted of 339 nucleotides with one intron of 85 bp and two exons of 208 and 131 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence of OoDAD1 showed a high degree of homology (94.6%) with DAD1 orthologue from the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor)--a major dipteran pest of wheat. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that OoDAD1 was present as a single copy in the genomes of the Asian rice gall midge biotypes (GMB) 1, 4 and 4 M. In the interactions involving GMB4 with Jaya (susceptible rice host) the expression level of OoDAD1 in feeding maggots gradually increased to 3-fold at 96 hai (hours after infestation) and peaked to 3.5-fold at 96 hai when compared to that at 24 hai. In contrast, expression in maggots feeding on RP2068 (resistant host) showed a steep increase of more than 8-fold at 24 hai and this level was sustained at 48, 72 and 96 hai when compared with the level in maggots feeding on Jaya at 24 hai. Recombinant OoDAD1, expressed in E. coli cells, when injected into rice seedlings induced a hypersensitive response (HR) in the resistant rice host, RP2068, but not in the susceptible rice variety, Jaya.

Conclusions: The results indicate that the expression of OoDAD1 is triggered in the feeding maggots probably due to the host resistance response and therefore, is likely an important molecule in the initial stages of the interaction between the midge and its rice host.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic tree showing relationship between orthologues of DAD1 reported from different organisms. The tree was constructed using the Neighbour-joining method and the pair-wise distances were calculated using the Poisson-corrected distance method included in the MacVector suite of programs. Branch lengths are arbitrary. This tree was arrived at using 1000 replications and figures at nodes represent detected bootstrap values above 50 %. Accession numbers are in parenthesis
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Fig2: Phylogenetic tree showing relationship between orthologues of DAD1 reported from different organisms. The tree was constructed using the Neighbour-joining method and the pair-wise distances were calculated using the Poisson-corrected distance method included in the MacVector suite of programs. Branch lengths are arbitrary. This tree was arrived at using 1000 replications and figures at nodes represent detected bootstrap values above 50 %. Accession numbers are in parenthesis

Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis of OoDAD1 revealed the degree of relationship of OoDAD1 with respect to those from other organisms (Fig. 2). However, this study clearly classified DAD1 of plant and animal taxa into two large clades. The clade containing DAD1 from animals were further sub-divided into vertebrates and invertebrates. The dipterans were clustered in a sub-clade under the invertebrates group. OoDAD1 was grouped within the clade containing other insects belonging to the order Diptera. The tree also revealed close relationship of OoDAD1 with orthologues from the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) and aphid (Acrythosiphon pisum) both of which are also plant feeders.Fig. 2


Feeding on resistant rice leads to enhanced expression of defender against apoptotic cell death (OoDAD1) in the Asian rice gall midge.

Sinha DK, Atray I, Bentur JS, Nair S - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Phylogenetic tree showing relationship between orthologues of DAD1 reported from different organisms. The tree was constructed using the Neighbour-joining method and the pair-wise distances were calculated using the Poisson-corrected distance method included in the MacVector suite of programs. Branch lengths are arbitrary. This tree was arrived at using 1000 replications and figures at nodes represent detected bootstrap values above 50 %. Accession numbers are in parenthesis
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591563&req=5

Fig2: Phylogenetic tree showing relationship between orthologues of DAD1 reported from different organisms. The tree was constructed using the Neighbour-joining method and the pair-wise distances were calculated using the Poisson-corrected distance method included in the MacVector suite of programs. Branch lengths are arbitrary. This tree was arrived at using 1000 replications and figures at nodes represent detected bootstrap values above 50 %. Accession numbers are in parenthesis
Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis of OoDAD1 revealed the degree of relationship of OoDAD1 with respect to those from other organisms (Fig. 2). However, this study clearly classified DAD1 of plant and animal taxa into two large clades. The clade containing DAD1 from animals were further sub-divided into vertebrates and invertebrates. The dipterans were clustered in a sub-clade under the invertebrates group. OoDAD1 was grouped within the clade containing other insects belonging to the order Diptera. The tree also revealed close relationship of OoDAD1 with orthologues from the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) and aphid (Acrythosiphon pisum) both of which are also plant feeders.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: In contrast, expression in maggots feeding on RP2068 (resistant host) showed a steep increase of more than 8-fold at 24 hai and this level was sustained at 48, 72 and 96 hai when compared with the level in maggots feeding on Jaya at 24 hai.Recombinant OoDAD1, expressed in E. coli cells, when injected into rice seedlings induced a hypersensitive response (HR) in the resistant rice host, RP2068, but not in the susceptible rice variety, Jaya.The results indicate that the expression of OoDAD1 is triggered in the feeding maggots probably due to the host resistance response and therefore, is likely an important molecule in the initial stages of the interaction between the midge and its rice host.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110 067, India. deepak22sinha@yahoo.co.in.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a destructive insect pest of rice. Gall midge infestation in rice triggers either compatible or incompatible interactions leading to survival or mortality of the feeding maggots, respectively. In incompatible interactions, generation of plant allelochemicals/defense molecules and/or inability of the maggots to continue feeding on the host initiate(s) apoptosis within the maggots. Unraveling these molecular events, triggered within the maggots as a response to feeding on resistant hosts, will enable us to obtain a better understanding of host resistance. The present study points towards the likely involvement of a defender against apoptotic cell death gene (DAD1) in the insect in response to the host defense.

Results: The cDNA coding for the DAD1 orthologue in the rice gall midge (OoDAD1) consisted of 339 nucleotides with one intron of 85 bp and two exons of 208 and 131 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence of OoDAD1 showed a high degree of homology (94.6%) with DAD1 orthologue from the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor)--a major dipteran pest of wheat. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that OoDAD1 was present as a single copy in the genomes of the Asian rice gall midge biotypes (GMB) 1, 4 and 4 M. In the interactions involving GMB4 with Jaya (susceptible rice host) the expression level of OoDAD1 in feeding maggots gradually increased to 3-fold at 96 hai (hours after infestation) and peaked to 3.5-fold at 96 hai when compared to that at 24 hai. In contrast, expression in maggots feeding on RP2068 (resistant host) showed a steep increase of more than 8-fold at 24 hai and this level was sustained at 48, 72 and 96 hai when compared with the level in maggots feeding on Jaya at 24 hai. Recombinant OoDAD1, expressed in E. coli cells, when injected into rice seedlings induced a hypersensitive response (HR) in the resistant rice host, RP2068, but not in the susceptible rice variety, Jaya.

Conclusions: The results indicate that the expression of OoDAD1 is triggered in the feeding maggots probably due to the host resistance response and therefore, is likely an important molecule in the initial stages of the interaction between the midge and its rice host.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus