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Man, You Might Look Like a Woman-If a Child Is Next to You.

Brielmann AA, Gaetano J, Stolarova M - Adv Cogn Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone.Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often.Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Zukunftskolleg, University of Konstanz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender categorization seems prone to a pervasive bias: Persons about whom or ambiguous gender information is available are more often considered male than female. Our study assessed whether such a male-bias is present in non-binary choice tasks and whether it can be altered by social contextual information. Participants were asked to report their perception of an adult figure's gender in three context conditions: (1) alone, (2) passively besides a child, or (3) actively helping a child (n = 10 pictures each). The response options male, female and I don't know were provided. As a result, participants attributed male gender to most figures and rarely used the I don't know option in all conditions, but were more likely to attribute female gender to the same adult figure if it was shown with a child. If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone. Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often. Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

No MeSH data available.


Proportion of response alterations within pictures of one situationin Experiment 2. Changes were counted and categorized between socialpassive and social helping (a), social passive and adult alone (b)as well as between social helping and adult alone conditions (c). Asin Figure 1, example pictures are framed according to condition(black = adult alone, light gray = social passive, dark gray =social helping). Cat’s eyes represent 95% CI s.
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Figure 5: Proportion of response alterations within pictures of one situationin Experiment 2. Changes were counted and categorized between socialpassive and social helping (a), social passive and adult alone (b)as well as between social helping and adult alone conditions (c). Asin Figure 1, example pictures are framed according to condition(black = adult alone, light gray = social passive, dark gray =social helping). Cat’s eyes represent 95% CI s.

Mentions: As for Experiment 1, we verified that differences in proportional responsesresulted from changes of responses to identical figures, by analyzingparticipants’ response alterations (see Figure 5). In contrast to Experiment 1, there was no absolutetendency of participants in Experiment 2 to most often remain constant intheir gender attributions. When comparing gender attributions for socialpassive and social helping pictures we found stronger evidence that seeingan adult figure actively helping a child in a nurturing situation increasesthe likelihood that this figure is perceived as female (see Figure 5a). Given the higher proportionof female gender attributions to helping compared to passive adults,response alterations between social context and adult alone pictures fit theexpected pattern given that previous gender attributions influence laterones: Participants switched to female rather than to male responses (seeFigure 5b, c). These findings putforward the hypothesis that one attribution of female gender is sufficientfor increasing the likelihood of female gender attributions in case thatfewer gender cues are provided for subsequent gender attributions of anidentical or very similar figure.


Man, You Might Look Like a Woman-If a Child Is Next to You.

Brielmann AA, Gaetano J, Stolarova M - Adv Cogn Psychol (2015)

Proportion of response alterations within pictures of one situationin Experiment 2. Changes were counted and categorized between socialpassive and social helping (a), social passive and adult alone (b)as well as between social helping and adult alone conditions (c). Asin Figure 1, example pictures are framed according to condition(black = adult alone, light gray = social passive, dark gray =social helping). Cat’s eyes represent 95% CI s.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591517&req=5

Figure 5: Proportion of response alterations within pictures of one situationin Experiment 2. Changes were counted and categorized between socialpassive and social helping (a), social passive and adult alone (b)as well as between social helping and adult alone conditions (c). Asin Figure 1, example pictures are framed according to condition(black = adult alone, light gray = social passive, dark gray =social helping). Cat’s eyes represent 95% CI s.
Mentions: As for Experiment 1, we verified that differences in proportional responsesresulted from changes of responses to identical figures, by analyzingparticipants’ response alterations (see Figure 5). In contrast to Experiment 1, there was no absolutetendency of participants in Experiment 2 to most often remain constant intheir gender attributions. When comparing gender attributions for socialpassive and social helping pictures we found stronger evidence that seeingan adult figure actively helping a child in a nurturing situation increasesthe likelihood that this figure is perceived as female (see Figure 5a). Given the higher proportionof female gender attributions to helping compared to passive adults,response alterations between social context and adult alone pictures fit theexpected pattern given that previous gender attributions influence laterones: Participants switched to female rather than to male responses (seeFigure 5b, c). These findings putforward the hypothesis that one attribution of female gender is sufficientfor increasing the likelihood of female gender attributions in case thatfewer gender cues are provided for subsequent gender attributions of anidentical or very similar figure.

Bottom Line: If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone.Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often.Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Zukunftskolleg, University of Konstanz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender categorization seems prone to a pervasive bias: Persons about whom or ambiguous gender information is available are more often considered male than female. Our study assessed whether such a male-bias is present in non-binary choice tasks and whether it can be altered by social contextual information. Participants were asked to report their perception of an adult figure's gender in three context conditions: (1) alone, (2) passively besides a child, or (3) actively helping a child (n = 10 pictures each). The response options male, female and I don't know were provided. As a result, participants attributed male gender to most figures and rarely used the I don't know option in all conditions, but were more likely to attribute female gender to the same adult figure if it was shown with a child. If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone. Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often. Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

No MeSH data available.