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Man, You Might Look Like a Woman-If a Child Is Next to You.

Brielmann AA, Gaetano J, Stolarova M - Adv Cogn Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone.Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often.Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Zukunftskolleg, University of Konstanz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender categorization seems prone to a pervasive bias: Persons about whom or ambiguous gender information is available are more often considered male than female. Our study assessed whether such a male-bias is present in non-binary choice tasks and whether it can be altered by social contextual information. Participants were asked to report their perception of an adult figure's gender in three context conditions: (1) alone, (2) passively besides a child, or (3) actively helping a child (n = 10 pictures each). The response options male, female and I don't know were provided. As a result, participants attributed male gender to most figures and rarely used the I don't know option in all conditions, but were more likely to attribute female gender to the same adult figure if it was shown with a child. If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone. Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often. Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

No MeSH data available.


Proportion of response alterations within pictures of one situationin Experiment 1. Changes were counted and categorized between adultalone and social passive (a) as well as between social passive andsocial helping conditions (b). As in Figure 1, example pictures areframed according to condition (black = adult alone, light gray =social passive, dark gray = social helping). Cat’s eyes represent95% CI s.
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Figure 4: Proportion of response alterations within pictures of one situationin Experiment 1. Changes were counted and categorized between adultalone and social passive (a) as well as between social passive andsocial helping conditions (b). As in Figure 1, example pictures areframed according to condition (black = adult alone, light gray =social passive, dark gray = social helping). Cat’s eyes represent95% CI s.

Mentions: For each situation the adult figure was identical across all three contextconditions, apart from slight, necessary changes in posture to convey thesituational difference between social passive to social helping (see Figure 1). Thus, alterations of responsesoccurring above chance can be attributed solely to influences of contextualchanges. Figure 4a illustrates theproportion of response alterations from adult alone to social passive, andFigure 4b from social passive tosocial helping pictures. Both patterns were highly similar. In absolutenumbers, participants were most likely to remain constant in their genderattributions (> 50%). If a change in gender attribution for a given adultfigure occurred from the adult alone to one of the two social conditions,the gender attribution most likely changed from male orI don’t know to female (29.1%and 32.5%; see Figure 4). Changes tomale (5.0% and 8.8%) or I don’tknow responses were much rarer (7.3% and 5.0%). As both of these alterationsoccurred with similar and very low frequency (see Figure 4), it is likely that they represent randomrather than systematic response changes. These results illustrate thatparticipants’ decreased male-bias for pictures showing the adultalong with a child (see Figure 3a, b)truly emanates from participants switching their initial gender attributionsfor a given adult figure to female due to changes in social context.


Man, You Might Look Like a Woman-If a Child Is Next to You.

Brielmann AA, Gaetano J, Stolarova M - Adv Cogn Psychol (2015)

Proportion of response alterations within pictures of one situationin Experiment 1. Changes were counted and categorized between adultalone and social passive (a) as well as between social passive andsocial helping conditions (b). As in Figure 1, example pictures areframed according to condition (black = adult alone, light gray =social passive, dark gray = social helping). Cat’s eyes represent95% CI s.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591517&req=5

Figure 4: Proportion of response alterations within pictures of one situationin Experiment 1. Changes were counted and categorized between adultalone and social passive (a) as well as between social passive andsocial helping conditions (b). As in Figure 1, example pictures areframed according to condition (black = adult alone, light gray =social passive, dark gray = social helping). Cat’s eyes represent95% CI s.
Mentions: For each situation the adult figure was identical across all three contextconditions, apart from slight, necessary changes in posture to convey thesituational difference between social passive to social helping (see Figure 1). Thus, alterations of responsesoccurring above chance can be attributed solely to influences of contextualchanges. Figure 4a illustrates theproportion of response alterations from adult alone to social passive, andFigure 4b from social passive tosocial helping pictures. Both patterns were highly similar. In absolutenumbers, participants were most likely to remain constant in their genderattributions (> 50%). If a change in gender attribution for a given adultfigure occurred from the adult alone to one of the two social conditions,the gender attribution most likely changed from male orI don’t know to female (29.1%and 32.5%; see Figure 4). Changes tomale (5.0% and 8.8%) or I don’tknow responses were much rarer (7.3% and 5.0%). As both of these alterationsoccurred with similar and very low frequency (see Figure 4), it is likely that they represent randomrather than systematic response changes. These results illustrate thatparticipants’ decreased male-bias for pictures showing the adultalong with a child (see Figure 3a, b)truly emanates from participants switching their initial gender attributionsfor a given adult figure to female due to changes in social context.

Bottom Line: If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone.Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often.Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Zukunftskolleg, University of Konstanz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender categorization seems prone to a pervasive bias: Persons about whom or ambiguous gender information is available are more often considered male than female. Our study assessed whether such a male-bias is present in non-binary choice tasks and whether it can be altered by social contextual information. Participants were asked to report their perception of an adult figure's gender in three context conditions: (1) alone, (2) passively besides a child, or (3) actively helping a child (n = 10 pictures each). The response options male, female and I don't know were provided. As a result, participants attributed male gender to most figures and rarely used the I don't know option in all conditions, but were more likely to attribute female gender to the same adult figure if it was shown with a child. If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone. Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often. Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

No MeSH data available.