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Man, You Might Look Like a Woman-If a Child Is Next to You.

Brielmann AA, Gaetano J, Stolarova M - Adv Cogn Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone.Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often.Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Zukunftskolleg, University of Konstanz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender categorization seems prone to a pervasive bias: Persons about whom or ambiguous gender information is available are more often considered male than female. Our study assessed whether such a male-bias is present in non-binary choice tasks and whether it can be altered by social contextual information. Participants were asked to report their perception of an adult figure's gender in three context conditions: (1) alone, (2) passively besides a child, or (3) actively helping a child (n = 10 pictures each). The response options male, female and I don't know were provided. As a result, participants attributed male gender to most figures and rarely used the I don't know option in all conditions, but were more likely to attribute female gender to the same adult figure if it was shown with a child. If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone. Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often. Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

No MeSH data available.


Time sequence for one example trial. All pictures were shown for 6 s,preceded by a 5 s preparation interval and followed by 5 s forresponding. The order of pictures was pre-randomized within eachblock.
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Figure 2: Time sequence for one example trial. All pictures were shown for 6 s,preceded by a 5 s preparation interval and followed by 5 s forresponding. The order of pictures was pre-randomized within eachblock.

Mentions: The experiments reported here were the first out of two which participantstook part in during the time course of a regular university lecture. Eachparticipant received one booklet and a separate consent form. The study wasconducted in the language of the participants’ degree course (eitherEnglish or German) at a German higher education institution. Stimuli werepresented on projection screens in lecture halls. Each picture was shown for6 s, preceded by a preparation slide shown for 5 s and followed by a slideprompting participants to indicate their decision in the provided bookletsfor 5 s (see Figure 2). Participantswere free to change their answers, even though no specific instructionsregarding changes were given and only unambiguously indicated final answerswere included in the data. The order of picture presentation wasquasi-randomized within two blocks, and was identical for all participants:one block contained the adult alone pictures (n = 10), theother one contained the social passive and social helping pictures(n = 20), intermingled such that pictures of the samesituation were separated by at least one other picture. In the main study(Experiment 1), pictures of adults alone were first shown to participants(n =10), followed by pictures of child-accompaniedadults (n = 20; 10 passive, 10 helping). We deliberatelylet participants rate the adult alone pictures first to collect baselinemeasures of gender attribution to a single figure without explicit gendercues. The exact order of stimuli is listed in the .text file available athttps://osf.io/ijk8w. In a small control experiment(Experiment 2) the order of the two blocks was reversed, to test for effectsof presentation order. Moreover, this control experiment also served as apartial control for effects of social desirability and social approval thatcannot be ruled out by means of within-subject comparisons in Experiment 1.If male-bias in social context conditions would be on the level of or evenlower for participants in Experiment 2 than for participants in Experiment1, social context must affect male-bias over and above anypossible—albeit not explicitly measured—effects of socialdesirability.


Man, You Might Look Like a Woman-If a Child Is Next to You.

Brielmann AA, Gaetano J, Stolarova M - Adv Cogn Psychol (2015)

Time sequence for one example trial. All pictures were shown for 6 s,preceded by a 5 s preparation interval and followed by 5 s forresponding. The order of pictures was pre-randomized within eachblock.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591517&req=5

Figure 2: Time sequence for one example trial. All pictures were shown for 6 s,preceded by a 5 s preparation interval and followed by 5 s forresponding. The order of pictures was pre-randomized within eachblock.
Mentions: The experiments reported here were the first out of two which participantstook part in during the time course of a regular university lecture. Eachparticipant received one booklet and a separate consent form. The study wasconducted in the language of the participants’ degree course (eitherEnglish or German) at a German higher education institution. Stimuli werepresented on projection screens in lecture halls. Each picture was shown for6 s, preceded by a preparation slide shown for 5 s and followed by a slideprompting participants to indicate their decision in the provided bookletsfor 5 s (see Figure 2). Participantswere free to change their answers, even though no specific instructionsregarding changes were given and only unambiguously indicated final answerswere included in the data. The order of picture presentation wasquasi-randomized within two blocks, and was identical for all participants:one block contained the adult alone pictures (n = 10), theother one contained the social passive and social helping pictures(n = 20), intermingled such that pictures of the samesituation were separated by at least one other picture. In the main study(Experiment 1), pictures of adults alone were first shown to participants(n =10), followed by pictures of child-accompaniedadults (n = 20; 10 passive, 10 helping). We deliberatelylet participants rate the adult alone pictures first to collect baselinemeasures of gender attribution to a single figure without explicit gendercues. The exact order of stimuli is listed in the .text file available athttps://osf.io/ijk8w. In a small control experiment(Experiment 2) the order of the two blocks was reversed, to test for effectsof presentation order. Moreover, this control experiment also served as apartial control for effects of social desirability and social approval thatcannot be ruled out by means of within-subject comparisons in Experiment 1.If male-bias in social context conditions would be on the level of or evenlower for participants in Experiment 2 than for participants in Experiment1, social context must affect male-bias over and above anypossible—albeit not explicitly measured—effects of socialdesirability.

Bottom Line: If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone.Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often.Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Zukunftskolleg, University of Konstanz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender categorization seems prone to a pervasive bias: Persons about whom or ambiguous gender information is available are more often considered male than female. Our study assessed whether such a male-bias is present in non-binary choice tasks and whether it can be altered by social contextual information. Participants were asked to report their perception of an adult figure's gender in three context conditions: (1) alone, (2) passively besides a child, or (3) actively helping a child (n = 10 pictures each). The response options male, female and I don't know were provided. As a result, participants attributed male gender to most figures and rarely used the I don't know option in all conditions, but were more likely to attribute female gender to the same adult figure if it was shown with a child. If such social contextual information was provided in the first rather than the second block of the experiment, subsequent female gender attributions increased for adult figures shown alone. Additionally, female gender attributions for actively helping relative to passive adults were made more often. Thus, we provide strong evidence that gender categorization can be altered by social context even if the subject of gender categorization remains identical.

No MeSH data available.