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Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat.

Saia S, Rappa V, Ruisi P, Abenavoli MR, Sunseri F, Giambalvo D, Frenda AS, Martinelli F - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake.A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added.The ammonium (NH4 (+)) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3 (-) transporters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli Studi di Palermo Palermo, Italy ; Fondazione A. e S. Lima Mancuso, Università degli Studi di Palermo Palermo, Italy.

ABSTRACT
In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4 (+)) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3 (-) transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression of phosphate transporter genes (Pht1, Pht2, and PT2-1) in Triticum durum root. Plants were grown under the unfertilized conditions or fertilized with an organic fertilized with low C:N ratio. Soil was left with the native microbial inoculum (NAT, white bars); inoculated with only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores (AMF, scaled bars); only plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, gray bars), or both AMF+PGPR (black bars). Means (n = 6) with standard errors, and analysis of variance results are shown. Fert is for fertilization treatment, Inoc for Inocula. Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD0.05) of Inocula is shown when Inocula, but not Fertilizer × Inocula interaction, is significant.
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Figure 1: Expression of phosphate transporter genes (Pht1, Pht2, and PT2-1) in Triticum durum root. Plants were grown under the unfertilized conditions or fertilized with an organic fertilized with low C:N ratio. Soil was left with the native microbial inoculum (NAT, white bars); inoculated with only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores (AMF, scaled bars); only plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, gray bars), or both AMF+PGPR (black bars). Means (n = 6) with standard errors, and analysis of variance results are shown. Fert is for fertilization treatment, Inoc for Inocula. Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD0.05) of Inocula is shown when Inocula, but not Fertilizer × Inocula interaction, is significant.

Mentions: Fertilization decreased the expression of Pht1 by 86% and PT2-1 by 49% (Figure 1). Inoculation with any or both of the plant growth-promoting microorganisms used in this study (AMF and/or PGPR) increased PT2-1. Under unfertilized conditions, inoculation with AMF significantly enhanced Pht2 expression compared to NAT, whereas inoculation with PGPR downregulated it. Expression of Pht2 in AMF+PGPR was similar to that observed in treatments inoculated with AMF alone. Under fertilized conditions, no differences were found in Pht2 expression among inoculation treatments.


Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat.

Saia S, Rappa V, Ruisi P, Abenavoli MR, Sunseri F, Giambalvo D, Frenda AS, Martinelli F - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Expression of phosphate transporter genes (Pht1, Pht2, and PT2-1) in Triticum durum root. Plants were grown under the unfertilized conditions or fertilized with an organic fertilized with low C:N ratio. Soil was left with the native microbial inoculum (NAT, white bars); inoculated with only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores (AMF, scaled bars); only plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, gray bars), or both AMF+PGPR (black bars). Means (n = 6) with standard errors, and analysis of variance results are shown. Fert is for fertilization treatment, Inoc for Inocula. Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD0.05) of Inocula is shown when Inocula, but not Fertilizer × Inocula interaction, is significant.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591488&req=5

Figure 1: Expression of phosphate transporter genes (Pht1, Pht2, and PT2-1) in Triticum durum root. Plants were grown under the unfertilized conditions or fertilized with an organic fertilized with low C:N ratio. Soil was left with the native microbial inoculum (NAT, white bars); inoculated with only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores (AMF, scaled bars); only plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, gray bars), or both AMF+PGPR (black bars). Means (n = 6) with standard errors, and analysis of variance results are shown. Fert is for fertilization treatment, Inoc for Inocula. Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD0.05) of Inocula is shown when Inocula, but not Fertilizer × Inocula interaction, is significant.
Mentions: Fertilization decreased the expression of Pht1 by 86% and PT2-1 by 49% (Figure 1). Inoculation with any or both of the plant growth-promoting microorganisms used in this study (AMF and/or PGPR) increased PT2-1. Under unfertilized conditions, inoculation with AMF significantly enhanced Pht2 expression compared to NAT, whereas inoculation with PGPR downregulated it. Expression of Pht2 in AMF+PGPR was similar to that observed in treatments inoculated with AMF alone. Under fertilized conditions, no differences were found in Pht2 expression among inoculation treatments.

Bottom Line: In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake.A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added.The ammonium (NH4 (+)) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3 (-) transporters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli Studi di Palermo Palermo, Italy ; Fondazione A. e S. Lima Mancuso, Università degli Studi di Palermo Palermo, Italy.

ABSTRACT
In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4 (+)) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3 (-) transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus