Limits...
N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota.

Pusceddu MM, El Aidy S, Crispie F, O'Sullivan O, Cotter P, Stanton C, Kelly P, Cryan JF, Dinan TG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals.This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.

Methods and results: Here, we show that long-term supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture could restore the disturbed gut-microbiota composition of maternally separated (MS) female rats. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day, respectively. Analysis of the gut microbiota in adult rats revealed that EPA/DHA changes composition in the MS, and to a lesser extent the NS rats, and was associated with attenuation of the corticosterone response to acute stress.

Conclusions: In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals. This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Redundancy analysis (RDA) based on the genus level showing a significant separation between the EPA/DHA treated and saline MS groups (P = 0.007).The hulls identify the centroids of each dataset. (B) Relative abundance of selected genera in the MS and NS saline and EPA/DHA treated groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591340&req=5

pone.0139721.g002: (A) Redundancy analysis (RDA) based on the genus level showing a significant separation between the EPA/DHA treated and saline MS groups (P = 0.007).The hulls identify the centroids of each dataset. (B) Relative abundance of selected genera in the MS and NS saline and EPA/DHA treated groups.

Mentions: The difference of the global microbiota composition from the 16S rDNA data of the six groups was assessed by ordination (Fig 2A). Statistics based on random permutations of the redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the MS-saline group can significantly be separated at genus level (p<0.001) from the MS EPA/DHA treated groups and the NS-saline and EPA/DHA treated groups. The centroids of the MS-saline and NS groups were clearly separated; whereas the MS EPA/DHA treated groups were in an intermediate position between the MS-saline and NS groups. Long-term supplementation of low dose of EPA/DHA in NS rats appears to have a different impact on the microbiota composition when compared to the NS-saline and NS-HD groups. Together, the results point to possible interactions between EPA/DHA and members of the gut microbiota, which may eventually influence their biological roles. In fact, in vitro interactions of PUFAs with some probiotics have been shown to affect the growth and adhesion of different Lactobacillus strains [33].


N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota.

Pusceddu MM, El Aidy S, Crispie F, O'Sullivan O, Cotter P, Stanton C, Kelly P, Cryan JF, Dinan TG - PLoS ONE (2015)

(A) Redundancy analysis (RDA) based on the genus level showing a significant separation between the EPA/DHA treated and saline MS groups (P = 0.007).The hulls identify the centroids of each dataset. (B) Relative abundance of selected genera in the MS and NS saline and EPA/DHA treated groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591340&req=5

pone.0139721.g002: (A) Redundancy analysis (RDA) based on the genus level showing a significant separation between the EPA/DHA treated and saline MS groups (P = 0.007).The hulls identify the centroids of each dataset. (B) Relative abundance of selected genera in the MS and NS saline and EPA/DHA treated groups.
Mentions: The difference of the global microbiota composition from the 16S rDNA data of the six groups was assessed by ordination (Fig 2A). Statistics based on random permutations of the redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the MS-saline group can significantly be separated at genus level (p<0.001) from the MS EPA/DHA treated groups and the NS-saline and EPA/DHA treated groups. The centroids of the MS-saline and NS groups were clearly separated; whereas the MS EPA/DHA treated groups were in an intermediate position between the MS-saline and NS groups. Long-term supplementation of low dose of EPA/DHA in NS rats appears to have a different impact on the microbiota composition when compared to the NS-saline and NS-HD groups. Together, the results point to possible interactions between EPA/DHA and members of the gut microbiota, which may eventually influence their biological roles. In fact, in vitro interactions of PUFAs with some probiotics have been shown to affect the growth and adhesion of different Lactobacillus strains [33].

Bottom Line: Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals.This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.

Methods and results: Here, we show that long-term supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture could restore the disturbed gut-microbiota composition of maternally separated (MS) female rats. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day, respectively. Analysis of the gut microbiota in adult rats revealed that EPA/DHA changes composition in the MS, and to a lesser extent the NS rats, and was associated with attenuation of the corticosterone response to acute stress.

Conclusions: In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals. This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus