Limits...
N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota.

Pusceddu MM, El Aidy S, Crispie F, O'Sullivan O, Cotter P, Stanton C, Kelly P, Cryan JF, Dinan TG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals.This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.

Methods and results: Here, we show that long-term supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture could restore the disturbed gut-microbiota composition of maternally separated (MS) female rats. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day, respectively. Analysis of the gut microbiota in adult rats revealed that EPA/DHA changes composition in the MS, and to a lesser extent the NS rats, and was associated with attenuation of the corticosterone response to acute stress.

Conclusions: In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals. This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the time course of the maternal separation procedure and EPA/DHA treatment.(B) Global average microbial composition of faecal 17 weeks old rats samples (n = 10 per group) at phylum-level. * Indicate bacterial group significantly different between MS and NS groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591340&req=5

pone.0139721.g001: Schematic representation of the time course of the maternal separation procedure and EPA/DHA treatment.(B) Global average microbial composition of faecal 17 weeks old rats samples (n = 10 per group) at phylum-level. * Indicate bacterial group significantly different between MS and NS groups.

Mentions: Oral administration of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosaexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture was administered by gavage when animals reached 5 weeks of age. In order to avoid any confounding litter effects, individual groups consisted of rats from multiple litters. Treatments consisted of 1) saline water; 2) EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or Low Dose (LD); 3) EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day or High Dose (HD). The chosen EPA/DHA concentrations were based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) recommendations. FAO recommends a minimum DHA intake of 10–12 mg/kg per body weight for children 6–24 months old and EPA/DHA 100–250 mg/day for children aged 2–10 years. In our study, the maximum EPA/DHA intake was 100 and 250 mg for the low dose and the high dose per body rat, respectively. Moreover, previous studies have used the same concentrations proposed in this study [27, 28]. Treatments were prepared freshly every day and administered between 0900h and 1100h a.m. The experimental time line is shown in Fig 1A.


N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota.

Pusceddu MM, El Aidy S, Crispie F, O'Sullivan O, Cotter P, Stanton C, Kelly P, Cryan JF, Dinan TG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Schematic representation of the time course of the maternal separation procedure and EPA/DHA treatment.(B) Global average microbial composition of faecal 17 weeks old rats samples (n = 10 per group) at phylum-level. * Indicate bacterial group significantly different between MS and NS groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591340&req=5

pone.0139721.g001: Schematic representation of the time course of the maternal separation procedure and EPA/DHA treatment.(B) Global average microbial composition of faecal 17 weeks old rats samples (n = 10 per group) at phylum-level. * Indicate bacterial group significantly different between MS and NS groups.
Mentions: Oral administration of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosaexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture was administered by gavage when animals reached 5 weeks of age. In order to avoid any confounding litter effects, individual groups consisted of rats from multiple litters. Treatments consisted of 1) saline water; 2) EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or Low Dose (LD); 3) EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day or High Dose (HD). The chosen EPA/DHA concentrations were based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) recommendations. FAO recommends a minimum DHA intake of 10–12 mg/kg per body weight for children 6–24 months old and EPA/DHA 100–250 mg/day for children aged 2–10 years. In our study, the maximum EPA/DHA intake was 100 and 250 mg for the low dose and the high dose per body rat, respectively. Moreover, previous studies have used the same concentrations proposed in this study [27, 28]. Treatments were prepared freshly every day and administered between 0900h and 1100h a.m. The experimental time line is shown in Fig 1A.

Bottom Line: Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals.This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.

Methods and results: Here, we show that long-term supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture could restore the disturbed gut-microbiota composition of maternally separated (MS) female rats. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day, respectively. Analysis of the gut microbiota in adult rats revealed that EPA/DHA changes composition in the MS, and to a lesser extent the NS rats, and was associated with attenuation of the corticosterone response to acute stress.

Conclusions: In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals. This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus