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The GSTome Reflects the Chemical Environment of White-Rot Fungi.

Deroy A, Saiag F, Kebbi-Benkeder Z, Touahri N, Hecker A, Morel-Rouhier M, Colin F, Dumarcay S, Gérardin P, Gelhaye E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In other respects, wood durability, among other factors, is due to the presence of extractives that are potential antimicrobial molecules.The results demonstrate that the specificity of these interactions is closely related to the chemical composition of the extracts in accordance with the tree species and their localization inside the wood (sapwood vs heartwood vs knotwood).These data suggest that the fungal GSTome could reflect the chemical environment encountered by these fungi during wood degradation and could be a way to study their adaptation to their way of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Université de Lorraine, Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes, UMR1136, F-54500, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; INRA, Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes, UMR1136, F-54280, Champenoux, France.

ABSTRACT
White-rot fungi possess the unique ability to degrade and mineralize all the different components of wood. In other respects, wood durability, among other factors, is due to the presence of extractives that are potential antimicrobial molecules. To cope with these molecules, wood decay fungi have developed a complex detoxification network including glutathione transferases (GST). The interactions between GSTs from two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and an environmental library of wood extracts have been studied. The results demonstrate that the specificity of these interactions is closely related to the chemical composition of the extracts in accordance with the tree species and their localization inside the wood (sapwood vs heartwood vs knotwood). These data suggest that the fungal GSTome could reflect the chemical environment encountered by these fungi during wood degradation and could be a way to study their adaptation to their way of life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Principal component analysis plot showing the distribution of acetonic extractives from tested hardwood.A matrix based on the interactions between the six studied TvGSTO and these extractives determined using the fluorescence-based thermal stability assay and the competition experiments was used as input
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pone.0137083.g003: Principal component analysis plot showing the distribution of acetonic extractives from tested hardwood.A matrix based on the interactions between the six studied TvGSTO and these extractives determined using the fluorescence-based thermal stability assay and the competition experiments was used as input

Mentions: Whereas the ecology of P. chrysosporium remains unclear, T. versicolor is a widespread fungus known as a prime wood decomposer of hardwood in temperate forests. The interactions between the six studied TvGSTOs and acetone extracts from several hardwoods and larch have also been specifically analyzed. Larch extracts have been integrated in this study since this softwood exhibits an extract composition similar to that one found in hardwoods [13]. The relative chemical composition of these extracts was determined using GC-MS analysis (Table 1). They contain different main classes of molecules as sugars, terpenes, lignans or flavonoids and also a more or less important uncharacterized fraction. PCA has been implemented on the data obtained after FTS and CE performed on TvGSTOs and chosen extracts (S2 and S4 Tables). PC1 and PC2 accounted for 58.09% of the total variance (Fig 3). The observed distribution into three groups is statistically significant as shown by the ANOVA performed on the obtained biplot coordinates (p<0.05). The first group (A) contains (i) chestnut and oak dead-knotwood, (ii) oak living-knotwood and also (iii) walnut and oak heartwood extracts. These extracts are mainly characterized by the exclusive presence of catechin among the flavonoids family and gallic acid. The second group (B) is characterized by the presence of mixture of flavonoids, gallic acid and lignans in the wood extracts. Extracts from larch heartwood and knotwood contain indeed a large proportion of uncharacterized flavonoids. This chemical composition is similar to that one observed in extracts of cherry heartwood and knotwood and could explain their close distribution. Nevertheless, it is important to mention that walnut sapwood, contains no flavonoid clusters in this group. A possible explanation could be the presence of chemicals also detected in heartwood but not fully identified. Finally the last group (C) contains sapwood extracts from most of the tested tree species (the only exception being walnut sapwood) and all beech extracts. These extracts are characterized by the absence (or a very low relative concentration) of flavonoids, gallic acid and lignans with the exception of cherry sapwood extract. This latter contains a high relative yield of uncharacterized flavonoids and belongs however to this last group. Analysis of the chemical composition highlights significant differences between the extracts belonging to the different groups. Presence/absence of gallic acid (Fisher analysis, p<0.0001) and presence/absence of flavonoids (Fisher analysis, p<0.005) could indeed explain at least partially the observed PCA distribution. From our results, it appears that the study of the biochemical interactions between GSTs and wood extracts could be a way to discriminate between these latter. This discrimination is largely correlated with their chemical composition. In particular, the obtained data suggest that the studied TvGSTOs could be used as enzymatic tools to discriminate wood extractives containing potential chemical active molecules such as gallic acid or flavonoids.


The GSTome Reflects the Chemical Environment of White-Rot Fungi.

Deroy A, Saiag F, Kebbi-Benkeder Z, Touahri N, Hecker A, Morel-Rouhier M, Colin F, Dumarcay S, Gérardin P, Gelhaye E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Principal component analysis plot showing the distribution of acetonic extractives from tested hardwood.A matrix based on the interactions between the six studied TvGSTO and these extractives determined using the fluorescence-based thermal stability assay and the competition experiments was used as input
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591263&req=5

pone.0137083.g003: Principal component analysis plot showing the distribution of acetonic extractives from tested hardwood.A matrix based on the interactions between the six studied TvGSTO and these extractives determined using the fluorescence-based thermal stability assay and the competition experiments was used as input
Mentions: Whereas the ecology of P. chrysosporium remains unclear, T. versicolor is a widespread fungus known as a prime wood decomposer of hardwood in temperate forests. The interactions between the six studied TvGSTOs and acetone extracts from several hardwoods and larch have also been specifically analyzed. Larch extracts have been integrated in this study since this softwood exhibits an extract composition similar to that one found in hardwoods [13]. The relative chemical composition of these extracts was determined using GC-MS analysis (Table 1). They contain different main classes of molecules as sugars, terpenes, lignans or flavonoids and also a more or less important uncharacterized fraction. PCA has been implemented on the data obtained after FTS and CE performed on TvGSTOs and chosen extracts (S2 and S4 Tables). PC1 and PC2 accounted for 58.09% of the total variance (Fig 3). The observed distribution into three groups is statistically significant as shown by the ANOVA performed on the obtained biplot coordinates (p<0.05). The first group (A) contains (i) chestnut and oak dead-knotwood, (ii) oak living-knotwood and also (iii) walnut and oak heartwood extracts. These extracts are mainly characterized by the exclusive presence of catechin among the flavonoids family and gallic acid. The second group (B) is characterized by the presence of mixture of flavonoids, gallic acid and lignans in the wood extracts. Extracts from larch heartwood and knotwood contain indeed a large proportion of uncharacterized flavonoids. This chemical composition is similar to that one observed in extracts of cherry heartwood and knotwood and could explain their close distribution. Nevertheless, it is important to mention that walnut sapwood, contains no flavonoid clusters in this group. A possible explanation could be the presence of chemicals also detected in heartwood but not fully identified. Finally the last group (C) contains sapwood extracts from most of the tested tree species (the only exception being walnut sapwood) and all beech extracts. These extracts are characterized by the absence (or a very low relative concentration) of flavonoids, gallic acid and lignans with the exception of cherry sapwood extract. This latter contains a high relative yield of uncharacterized flavonoids and belongs however to this last group. Analysis of the chemical composition highlights significant differences between the extracts belonging to the different groups. Presence/absence of gallic acid (Fisher analysis, p<0.0001) and presence/absence of flavonoids (Fisher analysis, p<0.005) could indeed explain at least partially the observed PCA distribution. From our results, it appears that the study of the biochemical interactions between GSTs and wood extracts could be a way to discriminate between these latter. This discrimination is largely correlated with their chemical composition. In particular, the obtained data suggest that the studied TvGSTOs could be used as enzymatic tools to discriminate wood extractives containing potential chemical active molecules such as gallic acid or flavonoids.

Bottom Line: In other respects, wood durability, among other factors, is due to the presence of extractives that are potential antimicrobial molecules.The results demonstrate that the specificity of these interactions is closely related to the chemical composition of the extracts in accordance with the tree species and their localization inside the wood (sapwood vs heartwood vs knotwood).These data suggest that the fungal GSTome could reflect the chemical environment encountered by these fungi during wood degradation and could be a way to study their adaptation to their way of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Université de Lorraine, Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes, UMR1136, F-54500, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; INRA, Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes, UMR1136, F-54280, Champenoux, France.

ABSTRACT
White-rot fungi possess the unique ability to degrade and mineralize all the different components of wood. In other respects, wood durability, among other factors, is due to the presence of extractives that are potential antimicrobial molecules. To cope with these molecules, wood decay fungi have developed a complex detoxification network including glutathione transferases (GST). The interactions between GSTs from two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and an environmental library of wood extracts have been studied. The results demonstrate that the specificity of these interactions is closely related to the chemical composition of the extracts in accordance with the tree species and their localization inside the wood (sapwood vs heartwood vs knotwood). These data suggest that the fungal GSTome could reflect the chemical environment encountered by these fungi during wood degradation and could be a way to study their adaptation to their way of life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus