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Efficacy of Procyanidins against In Vivo Cellular Oxidative Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Li S, Xu M, Niu Q, Xu S, Ding Y, Yan Y, Guo S, Li F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Statistically significant differences in the effects of PCs (P < 0.00001) were observed between these two methods.The effect of PCs on MDA was significantly greater in tissue samples than in serum samples (P = 0.02).The antagonistic effect may be related to intervention time, intervention method, and the source from which the indexes are estimated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases (Ministry of Education), Shihezi University School of Medicine, Xinjiang, China.

ABSTRACT

Aims: In this study, the efficacy of proanthocyanidins (PCs) against oxidative damage was systematically reviewed to facilitate their use in various applications.

Methods: A meta-analysis was performed by two researchers. Each investigator independently searched electronic databases, including Cochrane, PubMed, Springer, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CKNI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (CSTJ), and WanFang Data, and analyzed published data from 29 studies on the effects of PCs against oxidative damage. Oxidative stress indexes included superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC).

Results: Compared with the oxidative damage model group, PCs effectively improved the T-AOC, SOD, GSH, GPx, and CAT levels, and reduced the MDA levels; these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). In studies that used the gavage method, SOD (95% CI, 2.33-4.00) and GPx (95% CI, 2.10-4.05) were 3.16-fold and 3.08-fold higher in the PC group than in the control group, respectively. In studies that used the feeding method, SOD (95% CI, 0.32-1.74) and GPx (95% CI, -0.31 to 1.65) were 1.03-fold and 0.67-fold higher in the PC group than in the control group, respectively. Statistically significant differences in the effects of PCs (P < 0.00001) were observed between these two methods. MDA estimated from tissue samples (95% CI, -5.82 to -2.60) was 4.32-fold lower in the PC group than in the control group. In contrast, MDA estimated using serum samples (95% CI, -4.07 to -2.06) was 3.06-fold lower in the PC group than in the control group. The effect of PCs on MDA was significantly greater in tissue samples than in serum samples (P = 0.02).

Conclusion: PCs effectively antagonize oxidative damage and enhance antioxidant capacity. The antagonistic effect may be related to intervention time, intervention method, and the source from which the indexes are estimated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Antioxidant mechanism of PCs.PCs contain many phenolic hydroxyl groups and release H+ when they are oxidized, which can bind active oxygen radicals and competitively block the reaction chains of free radicals, reducing the consumption of antioxidants and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Abbreviations: LP represents lipid peroxidation, GSSG represents oxidized glutathione.
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pone.0139455.g011: Antioxidant mechanism of PCs.PCs contain many phenolic hydroxyl groups and release H+ when they are oxidized, which can bind active oxygen radicals and competitively block the reaction chains of free radicals, reducing the consumption of antioxidants and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Abbreviations: LP represents lipid peroxidation, GSSG represents oxidized glutathione.

Mentions: The antioxidative role of PCs is complex (Fig 11). Some harmful substances (such as H202, ethanol, galactose, and so on) induce oxidative stress and ROS production, and ultimately cause lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant defense system is activated and antioxidants (such as GSH, SOD, CAT, and GPx) remove excess free radicals and peroxides. If the degree of oxidation is beyond the capacity of antioxidant molecules, the levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, etc., will be reduced. PCs contain many phenolic hydroxyl groups and release H+ when they are oxidized, which can bind active oxygen radicals competitively to block the reaction chains of free radicals [48]. This reduces the consumption of antioxidants, increases the activity of antioxidative enzymes, improves antioxidative ability, and increases the T-AOC levels. In addition, it may be connected with increased expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), which can enhance antioxidation in cells. Liming [49], Yujie [50], and others have found that PC significantly increases the expression of Bcl-2, which increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes based on in vivo and vitro experiments.


Efficacy of Procyanidins against In Vivo Cellular Oxidative Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Li S, Xu M, Niu Q, Xu S, Ding Y, Yan Y, Guo S, Li F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Antioxidant mechanism of PCs.PCs contain many phenolic hydroxyl groups and release H+ when they are oxidized, which can bind active oxygen radicals and competitively block the reaction chains of free radicals, reducing the consumption of antioxidants and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Abbreviations: LP represents lipid peroxidation, GSSG represents oxidized glutathione.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591260&req=5

pone.0139455.g011: Antioxidant mechanism of PCs.PCs contain many phenolic hydroxyl groups and release H+ when they are oxidized, which can bind active oxygen radicals and competitively block the reaction chains of free radicals, reducing the consumption of antioxidants and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Abbreviations: LP represents lipid peroxidation, GSSG represents oxidized glutathione.
Mentions: The antioxidative role of PCs is complex (Fig 11). Some harmful substances (such as H202, ethanol, galactose, and so on) induce oxidative stress and ROS production, and ultimately cause lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant defense system is activated and antioxidants (such as GSH, SOD, CAT, and GPx) remove excess free radicals and peroxides. If the degree of oxidation is beyond the capacity of antioxidant molecules, the levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, etc., will be reduced. PCs contain many phenolic hydroxyl groups and release H+ when they are oxidized, which can bind active oxygen radicals competitively to block the reaction chains of free radicals [48]. This reduces the consumption of antioxidants, increases the activity of antioxidative enzymes, improves antioxidative ability, and increases the T-AOC levels. In addition, it may be connected with increased expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), which can enhance antioxidation in cells. Liming [49], Yujie [50], and others have found that PC significantly increases the expression of Bcl-2, which increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes based on in vivo and vitro experiments.

Bottom Line: Statistically significant differences in the effects of PCs (P < 0.00001) were observed between these two methods.The effect of PCs on MDA was significantly greater in tissue samples than in serum samples (P = 0.02).The antagonistic effect may be related to intervention time, intervention method, and the source from which the indexes are estimated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases (Ministry of Education), Shihezi University School of Medicine, Xinjiang, China.

ABSTRACT

Aims: In this study, the efficacy of proanthocyanidins (PCs) against oxidative damage was systematically reviewed to facilitate their use in various applications.

Methods: A meta-analysis was performed by two researchers. Each investigator independently searched electronic databases, including Cochrane, PubMed, Springer, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CKNI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (CSTJ), and WanFang Data, and analyzed published data from 29 studies on the effects of PCs against oxidative damage. Oxidative stress indexes included superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC).

Results: Compared with the oxidative damage model group, PCs effectively improved the T-AOC, SOD, GSH, GPx, and CAT levels, and reduced the MDA levels; these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). In studies that used the gavage method, SOD (95% CI, 2.33-4.00) and GPx (95% CI, 2.10-4.05) were 3.16-fold and 3.08-fold higher in the PC group than in the control group, respectively. In studies that used the feeding method, SOD (95% CI, 0.32-1.74) and GPx (95% CI, -0.31 to 1.65) were 1.03-fold and 0.67-fold higher in the PC group than in the control group, respectively. Statistically significant differences in the effects of PCs (P < 0.00001) were observed between these two methods. MDA estimated from tissue samples (95% CI, -5.82 to -2.60) was 4.32-fold lower in the PC group than in the control group. In contrast, MDA estimated using serum samples (95% CI, -4.07 to -2.06) was 3.06-fold lower in the PC group than in the control group. The effect of PCs on MDA was significantly greater in tissue samples than in serum samples (P = 0.02).

Conclusion: PCs effectively antagonize oxidative damage and enhance antioxidant capacity. The antagonistic effect may be related to intervention time, intervention method, and the source from which the indexes are estimated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus