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Long-term clinical and experimental/surface analytical studies of carbon/carbon maxillofacial implants.

Szabó G, Barabás J, Bogdán S, Németh Z, Sebők B, Kiss G - Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg (2015)

Bottom Line: The polymer complication may be eliminated through carbon fibres bound by pyrocarbon (carbon/carbon).The composition of this layer is identical to the composition of the underlying carbon fibres.The surface morphology and the structure were not changed after 8 years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry, Semmelweis University, Mária utca 52, Budapest, 1085 Hungary.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the past 30-40 years, various carbon implant materials have become more interesting, because they are well accepted by the biological environment. The traditional carbon-based polymers give rise to many complications. The polymer complication may be eliminated through carbon fibres bound by pyrocarbon (carbon/carbon). The aim of this study is to present the long-term clinical results of carbon/carbon implants, and the results of the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer investigation of an implant retrieved from the human body after 8 years.

Methods: Mandibular reconstruction (8-10 years ago) was performed with pure (99.99 %) carbon implants in 16 patients (10 malignant tumours, 4 large cystic lesions and 2 augmentative processes). The long-term effect of the human body on the carbon/carbon implant was investigated by comparing the structure, the surface morphology and the composition of an implant retrieved after 8 years to a sterilized, but not implanted one.

Results: Of the 16 patients, the implants had to be removed earlier in 5 patients because of the defect that arose on the oral mucosa above the carbon plates. During the long-term follow-up, plate fracture, loosening of the screws, infection or inflammations around the carbon/carbon implants were not observed. The thickness of the carbon fibres constituting the implants did not change during the 8-year period, the surface of the implant retrieved was covered with a thin surface layer not present on the unimplanted implant. The composition of this layer is identical to the composition of the underlying carbon fibres. Residual soft tissue penetrating the bulk material between the carbon fibre bunches was found on the retrieved implant indicating the importance of the surface morphology in tissue growth and adhering implants.

Conclusions: The surface morphology and the structure were not changed after 8 years. The two main components of the implant retrieved from the human body are still carbon and oxygen, but the amount of oxygen is 3-4 times higher than on the surface of the reference implant, which can be attributed to the oxidative effect of the human body, consequently in the integration and biocompatibility of the implant. The clinical conclusion is that if the soft part cover is appropriate, the carbon implants are cosmetically and functionally more suitable than titanium plates.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scanning electron microscope images of the implant retrieved from the human body, before the enzyme treatment. a Cross section, inner side, magnification ratio ×16. b Surface of the outer side, magnification ratio ×25
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Fig8: Scanning electron microscope images of the implant retrieved from the human body, before the enzyme treatment. a Cross section, inner side, magnification ratio ×16. b Surface of the outer side, magnification ratio ×25

Mentions: Figure 8 shows the cross section: inner (a) and outer (b) side of the implant retrieved from the human body after 8 years, but before the enzyme treatment. During the implantation period, the implant was fixed to the mandible with screws. One of these screws passed through the hole seen in the Fig. 8a. The image of the cross section shows that the cavities between the carbon fibre bunches are larger than those in the reference implant. The white areas are non-conducting regions, which are charged with the scanning electron beam during the measurement. These regions probably consist of residual human soft tissues, which partially cover the surface of the implant and penetrate into the bulk material between the bunches and the implant surface. The residual tissues conceal the morphology of the surface on both sides of the implant.Fig. 8


Long-term clinical and experimental/surface analytical studies of carbon/carbon maxillofacial implants.

Szabó G, Barabás J, Bogdán S, Németh Z, Sebők B, Kiss G - Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg (2015)

Scanning electron microscope images of the implant retrieved from the human body, before the enzyme treatment. a Cross section, inner side, magnification ratio ×16. b Surface of the outer side, magnification ratio ×25
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591193&req=5

Fig8: Scanning electron microscope images of the implant retrieved from the human body, before the enzyme treatment. a Cross section, inner side, magnification ratio ×16. b Surface of the outer side, magnification ratio ×25
Mentions: Figure 8 shows the cross section: inner (a) and outer (b) side of the implant retrieved from the human body after 8 years, but before the enzyme treatment. During the implantation period, the implant was fixed to the mandible with screws. One of these screws passed through the hole seen in the Fig. 8a. The image of the cross section shows that the cavities between the carbon fibre bunches are larger than those in the reference implant. The white areas are non-conducting regions, which are charged with the scanning electron beam during the measurement. These regions probably consist of residual human soft tissues, which partially cover the surface of the implant and penetrate into the bulk material between the bunches and the implant surface. The residual tissues conceal the morphology of the surface on both sides of the implant.Fig. 8

Bottom Line: The polymer complication may be eliminated through carbon fibres bound by pyrocarbon (carbon/carbon).The composition of this layer is identical to the composition of the underlying carbon fibres.The surface morphology and the structure were not changed after 8 years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry, Semmelweis University, Mária utca 52, Budapest, 1085 Hungary.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the past 30-40 years, various carbon implant materials have become more interesting, because they are well accepted by the biological environment. The traditional carbon-based polymers give rise to many complications. The polymer complication may be eliminated through carbon fibres bound by pyrocarbon (carbon/carbon). The aim of this study is to present the long-term clinical results of carbon/carbon implants, and the results of the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer investigation of an implant retrieved from the human body after 8 years.

Methods: Mandibular reconstruction (8-10 years ago) was performed with pure (99.99 %) carbon implants in 16 patients (10 malignant tumours, 4 large cystic lesions and 2 augmentative processes). The long-term effect of the human body on the carbon/carbon implant was investigated by comparing the structure, the surface morphology and the composition of an implant retrieved after 8 years to a sterilized, but not implanted one.

Results: Of the 16 patients, the implants had to be removed earlier in 5 patients because of the defect that arose on the oral mucosa above the carbon plates. During the long-term follow-up, plate fracture, loosening of the screws, infection or inflammations around the carbon/carbon implants were not observed. The thickness of the carbon fibres constituting the implants did not change during the 8-year period, the surface of the implant retrieved was covered with a thin surface layer not present on the unimplanted implant. The composition of this layer is identical to the composition of the underlying carbon fibres. Residual soft tissue penetrating the bulk material between the carbon fibre bunches was found on the retrieved implant indicating the importance of the surface morphology in tissue growth and adhering implants.

Conclusions: The surface morphology and the structure were not changed after 8 years. The two main components of the implant retrieved from the human body are still carbon and oxygen, but the amount of oxygen is 3-4 times higher than on the surface of the reference implant, which can be attributed to the oxidative effect of the human body, consequently in the integration and biocompatibility of the implant. The clinical conclusion is that if the soft part cover is appropriate, the carbon implants are cosmetically and functionally more suitable than titanium plates.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus