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Improvement of bacterial clearance and relief of clinical signs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in pigs through upregulation of Th 1-specific responses by administration of a combination of two silicate minerals, biotite and bentonite.

Lee JA, Jung BG, Kim TH, Kim YM, Koh HB, Lee BJ - J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: Typhimurium.Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group.Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biotite and bentonite are phyllosilicate minerals that were originally used in industrial applications. Several beneficial activities of them have recently been reported, especially regulation of the immune system and antimicrobial effects. Therefore, we investigated the immune-enhancing and bacterial clearance effects of a biotite and bentonite mixture (BBM) on experimental infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to determine whether the BBM could be used as an alternative antibiotic. We administered 1% or 2% BBM as a feed supplement. We then evaluated the bacterial clearance effects of the BBM against S. Typhimurium. We also evaluated the immune-enhancing effect of the BBM through several immunological experiments that included examination of the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and the T-helper type 1 (Th 1) cytokine profile. The clinical signs of S. Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The BBM also markedly enhanced the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in S. Typhimurium-challenged pigs. Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effects of the BBM on the relative mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 inpigs challenged with S. Typhimurium infection. PBMCs were isolatedfrom the blood samples, and then, mRNA expression levels of (A) IFN-γ and (B) IL-12were measured through quantitative real-time PCR. The BBM group shows a significantincrease in the IFN-γ and IL-12 levels. The data are presented as the mean ± SD of 5pigs per group. *P<0.05 vs. control group.***P<0.001 vs. control group.
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fig_006: The effects of the BBM on the relative mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 inpigs challenged with S. Typhimurium infection. PBMCs were isolatedfrom the blood samples, and then, mRNA expression levels of (A) IFN-γ and (B) IL-12were measured through quantitative real-time PCR. The BBM group shows a significantincrease in the IFN-γ and IL-12 levels. The data are presented as the mean ± SD of 5pigs per group. *P<0.05 vs. control group.***P<0.001 vs. control group.

Mentions: The effects of the BBM on the T lymphocyte subpopulations and the Th 1 cytokineprofiles in Salmonella-infected pigs: We specifically analyzed theCD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio and the mRNA expression levels of Th 1cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) based on the results of Experiment 1, which demonstrated theeffect of the BBM on T helper cells. The CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratioin the peripheral blood was significantly higher in both BBM groups than in the controlgroup (P<0.05 at 1% BBM group, P<0.01 at 2% BBMgroup) (Fig. 5B). The relative mRNA expressionlevels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were also significantly increased in the 1% BBM group and 2% BBMgroup compared with the control group (Fig. 6Fig. 6.


Improvement of bacterial clearance and relief of clinical signs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in pigs through upregulation of Th 1-specific responses by administration of a combination of two silicate minerals, biotite and bentonite.

Lee JA, Jung BG, Kim TH, Kim YM, Koh HB, Lee BJ - J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2015)

The effects of the BBM on the relative mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 inpigs challenged with S. Typhimurium infection. PBMCs were isolatedfrom the blood samples, and then, mRNA expression levels of (A) IFN-γ and (B) IL-12were measured through quantitative real-time PCR. The BBM group shows a significantincrease in the IFN-γ and IL-12 levels. The data are presented as the mean ± SD of 5pigs per group. *P<0.05 vs. control group.***P<0.001 vs. control group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591149&req=5

fig_006: The effects of the BBM on the relative mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 inpigs challenged with S. Typhimurium infection. PBMCs were isolatedfrom the blood samples, and then, mRNA expression levels of (A) IFN-γ and (B) IL-12were measured through quantitative real-time PCR. The BBM group shows a significantincrease in the IFN-γ and IL-12 levels. The data are presented as the mean ± SD of 5pigs per group. *P<0.05 vs. control group.***P<0.001 vs. control group.
Mentions: The effects of the BBM on the T lymphocyte subpopulations and the Th 1 cytokineprofiles in Salmonella-infected pigs: We specifically analyzed theCD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio and the mRNA expression levels of Th 1cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) based on the results of Experiment 1, which demonstrated theeffect of the BBM on T helper cells. The CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratioin the peripheral blood was significantly higher in both BBM groups than in the controlgroup (P<0.05 at 1% BBM group, P<0.01 at 2% BBMgroup) (Fig. 5B). The relative mRNA expressionlevels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were also significantly increased in the 1% BBM group and 2% BBMgroup compared with the control group (Fig. 6Fig. 6.

Bottom Line: Typhimurium.Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group.Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biotite and bentonite are phyllosilicate minerals that were originally used in industrial applications. Several beneficial activities of them have recently been reported, especially regulation of the immune system and antimicrobial effects. Therefore, we investigated the immune-enhancing and bacterial clearance effects of a biotite and bentonite mixture (BBM) on experimental infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to determine whether the BBM could be used as an alternative antibiotic. We administered 1% or 2% BBM as a feed supplement. We then evaluated the bacterial clearance effects of the BBM against S. Typhimurium. We also evaluated the immune-enhancing effect of the BBM through several immunological experiments that included examination of the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and the T-helper type 1 (Th 1) cytokine profile. The clinical signs of S. Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The BBM also markedly enhanced the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in S. Typhimurium-challenged pigs. Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus