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Improvement of bacterial clearance and relief of clinical signs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in pigs through upregulation of Th 1-specific responses by administration of a combination of two silicate minerals, biotite and bentonite.

Lee JA, Jung BG, Kim TH, Kim YM, Koh HB, Lee BJ - J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: Typhimurium.Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group.Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biotite and bentonite are phyllosilicate minerals that were originally used in industrial applications. Several beneficial activities of them have recently been reported, especially regulation of the immune system and antimicrobial effects. Therefore, we investigated the immune-enhancing and bacterial clearance effects of a biotite and bentonite mixture (BBM) on experimental infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to determine whether the BBM could be used as an alternative antibiotic. We administered 1% or 2% BBM as a feed supplement. We then evaluated the bacterial clearance effects of the BBM against S. Typhimurium. We also evaluated the immune-enhancing effect of the BBM through several immunological experiments that included examination of the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and the T-helper type 1 (Th 1) cytokine profile. The clinical signs of S. Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The BBM also markedly enhanced the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in S. Typhimurium-challenged pigs. Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effects of the BBM on the fecal condition score and bacterial clearance in pigschallenged with S. Typhimurium infection. The pigs were fed asupplemented diet and then orally inoculated with S. Typhimurium. Thefecal condition score and viable bacterial cell counts were measured afterS. Typhimurium infection at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. All pigs weresacrificed at the end of the experiment, and the cecum, colon and mesenteric lymphnode (MLN) tissues were collected and used for viable bacterial cell counting. (A) Thefecal condition scores are lower in the BBM groups than in the control group. Thenumbers of viable bacteria in the (B) feces and (C) tissues are notably decreased inthe BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The data are presented as the mean ±SD of 5 pigs per group. *P<0.05 vs. controlgroup. **P<0.01 vs. control group.
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fig_003: The effects of the BBM on the fecal condition score and bacterial clearance in pigschallenged with S. Typhimurium infection. The pigs were fed asupplemented diet and then orally inoculated with S. Typhimurium. Thefecal condition score and viable bacterial cell counts were measured afterS. Typhimurium infection at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. All pigs weresacrificed at the end of the experiment, and the cecum, colon and mesenteric lymphnode (MLN) tissues were collected and used for viable bacterial cell counting. (A) Thefecal condition scores are lower in the BBM groups than in the control group. Thenumbers of viable bacteria in the (B) feces and (C) tissues are notably decreased inthe BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The data are presented as the mean ±SD of 5 pigs per group. *P<0.05 vs. controlgroup. **P<0.01 vs. control group.

Mentions: Changes of clinical signs in pigs infected with S. Typhimurium: After theexperimental challenge with S. Typhimurium, the rectal body temperature andfecal condition scores were measured to evaluate the severity of infection. The rectal bodytemperature of all groups rapidly increased to more than 39.5°C at 3 DPI. There was nosignificant difference between the pigs fed the BBM and the control pigs during theexperimental period (data not shown). All infected animals showed mild diarrhea (scores 1–2)at 1 DPI, and the diarrhea symptom became severe at 3–5 DPI (scores 1–3). The fecalconsistency was back to normal at 7 DPI (score of approximately 1) (Fig. 3AFig. 3.


Improvement of bacterial clearance and relief of clinical signs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in pigs through upregulation of Th 1-specific responses by administration of a combination of two silicate minerals, biotite and bentonite.

Lee JA, Jung BG, Kim TH, Kim YM, Koh HB, Lee BJ - J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2015)

The effects of the BBM on the fecal condition score and bacterial clearance in pigschallenged with S. Typhimurium infection. The pigs were fed asupplemented diet and then orally inoculated with S. Typhimurium. Thefecal condition score and viable bacterial cell counts were measured afterS. Typhimurium infection at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. All pigs weresacrificed at the end of the experiment, and the cecum, colon and mesenteric lymphnode (MLN) tissues were collected and used for viable bacterial cell counting. (A) Thefecal condition scores are lower in the BBM groups than in the control group. Thenumbers of viable bacteria in the (B) feces and (C) tissues are notably decreased inthe BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The data are presented as the mean ±SD of 5 pigs per group. *P<0.05 vs. controlgroup. **P<0.01 vs. control group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591149&req=5

fig_003: The effects of the BBM on the fecal condition score and bacterial clearance in pigschallenged with S. Typhimurium infection. The pigs were fed asupplemented diet and then orally inoculated with S. Typhimurium. Thefecal condition score and viable bacterial cell counts were measured afterS. Typhimurium infection at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. All pigs weresacrificed at the end of the experiment, and the cecum, colon and mesenteric lymphnode (MLN) tissues were collected and used for viable bacterial cell counting. (A) Thefecal condition scores are lower in the BBM groups than in the control group. Thenumbers of viable bacteria in the (B) feces and (C) tissues are notably decreased inthe BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The data are presented as the mean ±SD of 5 pigs per group. *P<0.05 vs. controlgroup. **P<0.01 vs. control group.
Mentions: Changes of clinical signs in pigs infected with S. Typhimurium: After theexperimental challenge with S. Typhimurium, the rectal body temperature andfecal condition scores were measured to evaluate the severity of infection. The rectal bodytemperature of all groups rapidly increased to more than 39.5°C at 3 DPI. There was nosignificant difference between the pigs fed the BBM and the control pigs during theexperimental period (data not shown). All infected animals showed mild diarrhea (scores 1–2)at 1 DPI, and the diarrhea symptom became severe at 3–5 DPI (scores 1–3). The fecalconsistency was back to normal at 7 DPI (score of approximately 1) (Fig. 3AFig. 3.

Bottom Line: Typhimurium.Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group.Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biotite and bentonite are phyllosilicate minerals that were originally used in industrial applications. Several beneficial activities of them have recently been reported, especially regulation of the immune system and antimicrobial effects. Therefore, we investigated the immune-enhancing and bacterial clearance effects of a biotite and bentonite mixture (BBM) on experimental infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to determine whether the BBM could be used as an alternative antibiotic. We administered 1% or 2% BBM as a feed supplement. We then evaluated the bacterial clearance effects of the BBM against S. Typhimurium. We also evaluated the immune-enhancing effect of the BBM through several immunological experiments that included examination of the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and the T-helper type 1 (Th 1) cytokine profile. The clinical signs of S. Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The BBM also markedly enhanced the lysozyme activity, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio and expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in S. Typhimurium-challenged pigs. Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus