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Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle.

Liu X, Bai C, Ding X, Wei Z, Guo H, Li G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway.The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals.These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Key Laboratory of Mammalian Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology of the Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China; College of Animal Science and Animal Medicine, Tianjin Agriculture University, Tianjin, China.

ABSTRACT
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals.

No MeSH data available.


Microarray biological process (GO Ontology) classification.The x-axis indicates the likelihood [−log2(pvalue)] in a category, and the y-axis means the different subcategories of biological process. The GO terms related to lipid metabolism are represented by red boxes.
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pone.0138874.g002: Microarray biological process (GO Ontology) classification.The x-axis indicates the likelihood [−log2(pvalue)] in a category, and the y-axis means the different subcategories of biological process. The GO terms related to lipid metabolism are represented by red boxes.

Mentions: It has been suggested that PUFAs can regulate the expression of genes involved in several metabolic pathways [22]. In the present study, to gain further insight into the metabolic processes that differed between the fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle, GO enrichment analysis was performed using 1605 differentially expressed genes from the 2042 significantly differentially expressed transcripts. The three GO categories (biological process, metabolic function, and cell component) were explored using DAVID bioinformatic tools for the overrepresentation of specific GO terms. To extract the most information from our gene expression data, biological functions with a P value <0.05 were considered significant. In total, 1556 differentially expressed genes were annotated in 90 GO functional groups, including 52 groups in biological processes, 15 in cellular components, and 23 in molecular functions (Fig 2, S1 and S2 Figs). In the biological process category, the most important enriched terms were related to lipid metabolism, cell behavior, and immune and nervous systems development (Fig 2). Within the cellular component category, the GO term with the highest level of significance was extracellular, including the extracellular region, extracellular region, extracellular space, and extracellular matrix (S1 Fig). Finally, calcium ion binding, phospholipase D activity, and glycosaminoglycan binding accounted for most of the terms in the molecular function category (S2 Fig). Based on the results of the GO analysis, we focused on eight GO terms for the biological process related to lipid metabolism (Fig 2). Of these, ‘Fatty acid metabolic process’ and ‘Fatty acid biosynthetic process’ are mainly involved in liberating fatty acids from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis. ‘Lipid biosynthetic process’, ‘Carboxylic acid biosynthetic process’, and ‘Organic acid biosynthetic process’ exert important role in the formation of lipids, carboxylic acids, and organic acids, respectively. ‘Icosanoid metabolic process’ and ‘Unsaturated fatty acid metabolic process’ are the main metabolic processes representing the chemical reactions and pathways involving an unsaturated fatty acid. ‘Regulation of lipid metabolic process’ can modulate the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids. This indicated that these eight lipid metabolic processes may be involved in the function of the fat-1 gene.


Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle.

Liu X, Bai C, Ding X, Wei Z, Guo H, Li G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Microarray biological process (GO Ontology) classification.The x-axis indicates the likelihood [−log2(pvalue)] in a category, and the y-axis means the different subcategories of biological process. The GO terms related to lipid metabolism are represented by red boxes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591129&req=5

pone.0138874.g002: Microarray biological process (GO Ontology) classification.The x-axis indicates the likelihood [−log2(pvalue)] in a category, and the y-axis means the different subcategories of biological process. The GO terms related to lipid metabolism are represented by red boxes.
Mentions: It has been suggested that PUFAs can regulate the expression of genes involved in several metabolic pathways [22]. In the present study, to gain further insight into the metabolic processes that differed between the fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle, GO enrichment analysis was performed using 1605 differentially expressed genes from the 2042 significantly differentially expressed transcripts. The three GO categories (biological process, metabolic function, and cell component) were explored using DAVID bioinformatic tools for the overrepresentation of specific GO terms. To extract the most information from our gene expression data, biological functions with a P value <0.05 were considered significant. In total, 1556 differentially expressed genes were annotated in 90 GO functional groups, including 52 groups in biological processes, 15 in cellular components, and 23 in molecular functions (Fig 2, S1 and S2 Figs). In the biological process category, the most important enriched terms were related to lipid metabolism, cell behavior, and immune and nervous systems development (Fig 2). Within the cellular component category, the GO term with the highest level of significance was extracellular, including the extracellular region, extracellular region, extracellular space, and extracellular matrix (S1 Fig). Finally, calcium ion binding, phospholipase D activity, and glycosaminoglycan binding accounted for most of the terms in the molecular function category (S2 Fig). Based on the results of the GO analysis, we focused on eight GO terms for the biological process related to lipid metabolism (Fig 2). Of these, ‘Fatty acid metabolic process’ and ‘Fatty acid biosynthetic process’ are mainly involved in liberating fatty acids from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis. ‘Lipid biosynthetic process’, ‘Carboxylic acid biosynthetic process’, and ‘Organic acid biosynthetic process’ exert important role in the formation of lipids, carboxylic acids, and organic acids, respectively. ‘Icosanoid metabolic process’ and ‘Unsaturated fatty acid metabolic process’ are the main metabolic processes representing the chemical reactions and pathways involving an unsaturated fatty acid. ‘Regulation of lipid metabolic process’ can modulate the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids. This indicated that these eight lipid metabolic processes may be involved in the function of the fat-1 gene.

Bottom Line: This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway.The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals.These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Key Laboratory of Mammalian Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology of the Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China; College of Animal Science and Animal Medicine, Tianjin Agriculture University, Tianjin, China.

ABSTRACT
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals.

No MeSH data available.