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Causes and Consequences of Schadenfreude and Sympathy: A Developmental Analysis.

Schindler R, Körner A, Bauer S, Hadji S, Rudolph U - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Results show that children experience sympathy as well as schadenfreude at the age of 4 years.In contrast, schadenfreude is more likely when the protagonist is disliked, when actors pursue immoral goals and if they are responsible for their misfortune.In addition, sympathy increases approach (helping behavior, sitting next to the agent and doing favors), whereas schadenfreude increases avoidance tendencies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Moral judgments and moral emotions are a ubiquitous feature of social interactions. Humans decide quickly and intuitively whether an action is morally right or wrong. Schadenfreude and sympathy, as emotional reactions to the misfortunes of others, are prototypical moral emotions. So far, however, little evidence exists concerning children's understanding of schadenfreude. Within three studies, we investigated the experience of schadenfreude and sympathy among N = 364 children of different age groups. We interviewed the children while showing them picture stories. In the picture stories, we varied the behavior of the protagonist prior to a misfortune: (1) whether his behavior had been morally right or wrong, (2) whether the protagonist attained his goal, (3) whether the protagonist was responsible for the misfortune. In addition, in one study we varied (4) the emotional relationship of the interviewed children to the protagonist. Furthermore, we asked the children to decide whether they want to sit next to the protagonist or do him a favor. Results show that children experience sympathy as well as schadenfreude at the age of 4 years. Sympathy is more likely to arise when the protagonists of a story are likable, when these actors typically pursue morally positive goals, and if they are not responsible for their misfortune. In contrast, schadenfreude is more likely when the protagonist is disliked, when actors pursue immoral goals and if they are responsible for their misfortune. In addition, sympathy increases approach (helping behavior, sitting next to the agent and doing favors), whereas schadenfreude increases avoidance tendencies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Path Model of the Impact of Valence of Behavior on Schadenfreude, Sympathy and Reward Granting with standardized regression coefficients β and the Impact without Schadenfreude and Sympathy in Brackets, **p < .01; ***p < .001.
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pone.0137669.g012: Path Model of the Impact of Valence of Behavior on Schadenfreude, Sympathy and Reward Granting with standardized regression coefficients β and the Impact without Schadenfreude and Sympathy in Brackets, **p < .01; ***p < .001.

Mentions: In the third model (Fig 12), a positive significant effect of behavioral valence on schadenfreude, and a significant negative effect of schadenfreude on reward granting appeared. . . Furthermore, there was a significant negative relation between valence of behavior and sympathy, and a significant positive relation between sympathy and reward granting. The valence of behavior also had a direct significant negative effect on the number of gummy bears given to the protagonist. When Adding the indirect paths then the standardized coefficients decreased from r = -.57 to r = —.42Testing the whole model according to the procedure proposed by Hayes [25] indicated significant indirect effects for schadenfreude (z = -4.089, p > .000) and sympathy (z = -2.531, p = .011).


Causes and Consequences of Schadenfreude and Sympathy: A Developmental Analysis.

Schindler R, Körner A, Bauer S, Hadji S, Rudolph U - PLoS ONE (2015)

Path Model of the Impact of Valence of Behavior on Schadenfreude, Sympathy and Reward Granting with standardized regression coefficients β and the Impact without Schadenfreude and Sympathy in Brackets, **p < .01; ***p < .001.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4591124&req=5

pone.0137669.g012: Path Model of the Impact of Valence of Behavior on Schadenfreude, Sympathy and Reward Granting with standardized regression coefficients β and the Impact without Schadenfreude and Sympathy in Brackets, **p < .01; ***p < .001.
Mentions: In the third model (Fig 12), a positive significant effect of behavioral valence on schadenfreude, and a significant negative effect of schadenfreude on reward granting appeared. . . Furthermore, there was a significant negative relation between valence of behavior and sympathy, and a significant positive relation between sympathy and reward granting. The valence of behavior also had a direct significant negative effect on the number of gummy bears given to the protagonist. When Adding the indirect paths then the standardized coefficients decreased from r = -.57 to r = —.42Testing the whole model according to the procedure proposed by Hayes [25] indicated significant indirect effects for schadenfreude (z = -4.089, p > .000) and sympathy (z = -2.531, p = .011).

Bottom Line: Results show that children experience sympathy as well as schadenfreude at the age of 4 years.In contrast, schadenfreude is more likely when the protagonist is disliked, when actors pursue immoral goals and if they are responsible for their misfortune.In addition, sympathy increases approach (helping behavior, sitting next to the agent and doing favors), whereas schadenfreude increases avoidance tendencies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Moral judgments and moral emotions are a ubiquitous feature of social interactions. Humans decide quickly and intuitively whether an action is morally right or wrong. Schadenfreude and sympathy, as emotional reactions to the misfortunes of others, are prototypical moral emotions. So far, however, little evidence exists concerning children's understanding of schadenfreude. Within three studies, we investigated the experience of schadenfreude and sympathy among N = 364 children of different age groups. We interviewed the children while showing them picture stories. In the picture stories, we varied the behavior of the protagonist prior to a misfortune: (1) whether his behavior had been morally right or wrong, (2) whether the protagonist attained his goal, (3) whether the protagonist was responsible for the misfortune. In addition, in one study we varied (4) the emotional relationship of the interviewed children to the protagonist. Furthermore, we asked the children to decide whether they want to sit next to the protagonist or do him a favor. Results show that children experience sympathy as well as schadenfreude at the age of 4 years. Sympathy is more likely to arise when the protagonists of a story are likable, when these actors typically pursue morally positive goals, and if they are not responsible for their misfortune. In contrast, schadenfreude is more likely when the protagonist is disliked, when actors pursue immoral goals and if they are responsible for their misfortune. In addition, sympathy increases approach (helping behavior, sitting next to the agent and doing favors), whereas schadenfreude increases avoidance tendencies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus