Limits...
Evaluating the Reproducibility of Motion Analysis Scanning of the Spine during Walking.

Gipsman A, Rauschert L, Daneshvar M, Knott P - Adv Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Methods.The surface topography system calculated reproducible measurements with error ranges comparable to the current gold standard in dynamic spinal motion analysis.Therefore, this technique should be considered of high clinical value for reliably evaluating segmental motion and spinal curvatures and should further be evaluated in the setting of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.

ABSTRACT
The Formetric 4D dynamic system (Diers International GmbH, Schlangenbad, Germany) is a rasterstereography based imaging system designed to evaluate spinal deformity, providing radiation-free imaging of the position, rotation, and shape of the spine during the gait cycle. Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate whether repeated measurements with the Formetric 4D dynamic system would be reproducible with a standard deviation of less than +/- 3 degrees. This study looked at real-time segmental motion, measuring kyphosis, lordosis, trunk length, pelvic, and T4 and L1 vertebral body rotation. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers each underwent 3 consecutive scans. Measurements for kyphosis, lordosis, trunk length, and rotations of T4, L1, and the pelvis were recorded for each trial. Results. The average standard deviations of same-day repeat measurements were within +/- 3 degrees with a range of 0.51 degrees to 2.3 degrees. Conclusions. The surface topography system calculated reproducible measurements with error ranges comparable to the current gold standard in dynamic spinal motion analysis. Therefore, this technique should be considered of high clinical value for reliably evaluating segmental motion and spinal curvatures and should further be evaluated in the setting of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Adjustment of markers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590960&req=5

fig2: Adjustment of markers.

Mentions: The primary examiner placed 3 reflective stickers on the subject's back, one on the spinous process of C7 and one on each of the posterior superior iliac spines (PSIS) in the sacral region. These markers help the machine find these points quickly allowing faster and more accurate data processing. The examiner palpated each location before placing the sticker. Proper marker placement was confirmed with static imaging as follows. After the stickers were placed, subjects were instructed to stand at a marked position on the floor in their normal relaxed position with arms at their side and back to the Formetric 4D camera. With the machine in static mode, the mean curvature screen was selected (Figure 1). The investigators confirmed that the stickers were correctly located in the center of the PSIS depressions (blue dimples) and C7 (red protuberance). The primary examiner adjusted the stickers as necessary according to the surface topography images as shown in Figure 2. Results from a previous study comparing automatic detection of anatomic landmarks using the Formetric 4D versus manual detection by the clinician showed that automatic detection using surface topography was more reliable [24]. Once the reflective stickers were properly placed, they remained there until all measurements were completed.


Evaluating the Reproducibility of Motion Analysis Scanning of the Spine during Walking.

Gipsman A, Rauschert L, Daneshvar M, Knott P - Adv Med (2014)

Adjustment of markers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590960&req=5

fig2: Adjustment of markers.
Mentions: The primary examiner placed 3 reflective stickers on the subject's back, one on the spinous process of C7 and one on each of the posterior superior iliac spines (PSIS) in the sacral region. These markers help the machine find these points quickly allowing faster and more accurate data processing. The examiner palpated each location before placing the sticker. Proper marker placement was confirmed with static imaging as follows. After the stickers were placed, subjects were instructed to stand at a marked position on the floor in their normal relaxed position with arms at their side and back to the Formetric 4D camera. With the machine in static mode, the mean curvature screen was selected (Figure 1). The investigators confirmed that the stickers were correctly located in the center of the PSIS depressions (blue dimples) and C7 (red protuberance). The primary examiner adjusted the stickers as necessary according to the surface topography images as shown in Figure 2. Results from a previous study comparing automatic detection of anatomic landmarks using the Formetric 4D versus manual detection by the clinician showed that automatic detection using surface topography was more reliable [24]. Once the reflective stickers were properly placed, they remained there until all measurements were completed.

Bottom Line: Methods.The surface topography system calculated reproducible measurements with error ranges comparable to the current gold standard in dynamic spinal motion analysis.Therefore, this technique should be considered of high clinical value for reliably evaluating segmental motion and spinal curvatures and should further be evaluated in the setting of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.

ABSTRACT
The Formetric 4D dynamic system (Diers International GmbH, Schlangenbad, Germany) is a rasterstereography based imaging system designed to evaluate spinal deformity, providing radiation-free imaging of the position, rotation, and shape of the spine during the gait cycle. Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate whether repeated measurements with the Formetric 4D dynamic system would be reproducible with a standard deviation of less than +/- 3 degrees. This study looked at real-time segmental motion, measuring kyphosis, lordosis, trunk length, pelvic, and T4 and L1 vertebral body rotation. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers each underwent 3 consecutive scans. Measurements for kyphosis, lordosis, trunk length, and rotations of T4, L1, and the pelvis were recorded for each trial. Results. The average standard deviations of same-day repeat measurements were within +/- 3 degrees with a range of 0.51 degrees to 2.3 degrees. Conclusions. The surface topography system calculated reproducible measurements with error ranges comparable to the current gold standard in dynamic spinal motion analysis. Therefore, this technique should be considered of high clinical value for reliably evaluating segmental motion and spinal curvatures and should further be evaluated in the setting of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus