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Transplantation of Encapsulated Pancreatic Islets as a Treatment for Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Qi M - Adv Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Encapsulation of pancreatic islets has been proposed and investigated for over three decades to improve islet transplantation outcomes and to eliminate the side effects of immunosuppressive medications.Of the numerous encapsulation systems developed in the past, microencapsulation have been studied most extensively so far.A wide variety of materials has been tested for microencapsulation in various animal models (including nonhuman primates or NHPs) and some materials were shown to induce immunoprotection to islet grafts without the need for chronic immunosuppression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Transplantation/Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612, USA ; Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

ABSTRACT
Encapsulation of pancreatic islets has been proposed and investigated for over three decades to improve islet transplantation outcomes and to eliminate the side effects of immunosuppressive medications. Of the numerous encapsulation systems developed in the past, microencapsulation have been studied most extensively so far. A wide variety of materials has been tested for microencapsulation in various animal models (including nonhuman primates or NHPs) and some materials were shown to induce immunoprotection to islet grafts without the need for chronic immunosuppression. Despite the initial success of microcapsules in NHP models, the combined use of islet transplantation (allograft) and microencapsulation has not yet been successful in clinical trials. This review consists of three sections: introduction to islet transplantation, transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets as a treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and present challenges and future perspectives.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of immunoisolation device or bioartificial pancreas. They can be commonly separated into two categories, intravascular and extravascular devices. The latter can further be divided into macroencapsulation and microencapsulation devices. Intravascular and extravascular classifications are based on whether or not it is connected directly to the blood circulation. The macroencapsulation and microencapsulation classifications depend on whether it contains one or more islets in the device.
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fig2: Schematic representation of immunoisolation device or bioartificial pancreas. They can be commonly separated into two categories, intravascular and extravascular devices. The latter can further be divided into macroencapsulation and microencapsulation devices. Intravascular and extravascular classifications are based on whether or not it is connected directly to the blood circulation. The macroencapsulation and microencapsulation classifications depend on whether it contains one or more islets in the device.

Mentions: Encapsulation technology provides the means for islet cell survival in the absence of immunosuppressive drugs. The principle of encapsulation is that transplanted cells are contained within an artificial compartment separated from the immune system by a semipermeable membrane. The capsule should protect the cells from potential damage caused by antibodies, complement proteins, and immune cells. Therefore, the capsule is often referred to as an “immunoisolation device.” As well as the protective mechanism provided by the capsules, islet cells within the capsules can also release insulin to control blood glucose levels, since this membrane enables small molecules to diffuse in (glucose, oxygen, and nutrients) and out (metabolic wastes). Thus, the encapsulation system is also regarded as a “bioartificial pancreas.” The immunoisolation device or bioartificial pancreas can be commonly separated into two categories, intravascular and extravascular devices. The latter can further be divided into macroencapsulation and microencapsulation devices (Figure 2). Intravascular and extravascular classifications are based on whether or not it is connected directly to the blood circulation. The macroencapsulation and microencapsulation classifications depend on whether it contains one or more islets in the device.


Transplantation of Encapsulated Pancreatic Islets as a Treatment for Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Qi M - Adv Med (2014)

Schematic representation of immunoisolation device or bioartificial pancreas. They can be commonly separated into two categories, intravascular and extravascular devices. The latter can further be divided into macroencapsulation and microencapsulation devices. Intravascular and extravascular classifications are based on whether or not it is connected directly to the blood circulation. The macroencapsulation and microencapsulation classifications depend on whether it contains one or more islets in the device.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590955&req=5

fig2: Schematic representation of immunoisolation device or bioartificial pancreas. They can be commonly separated into two categories, intravascular and extravascular devices. The latter can further be divided into macroencapsulation and microencapsulation devices. Intravascular and extravascular classifications are based on whether or not it is connected directly to the blood circulation. The macroencapsulation and microencapsulation classifications depend on whether it contains one or more islets in the device.
Mentions: Encapsulation technology provides the means for islet cell survival in the absence of immunosuppressive drugs. The principle of encapsulation is that transplanted cells are contained within an artificial compartment separated from the immune system by a semipermeable membrane. The capsule should protect the cells from potential damage caused by antibodies, complement proteins, and immune cells. Therefore, the capsule is often referred to as an “immunoisolation device.” As well as the protective mechanism provided by the capsules, islet cells within the capsules can also release insulin to control blood glucose levels, since this membrane enables small molecules to diffuse in (glucose, oxygen, and nutrients) and out (metabolic wastes). Thus, the encapsulation system is also regarded as a “bioartificial pancreas.” The immunoisolation device or bioartificial pancreas can be commonly separated into two categories, intravascular and extravascular devices. The latter can further be divided into macroencapsulation and microencapsulation devices (Figure 2). Intravascular and extravascular classifications are based on whether or not it is connected directly to the blood circulation. The macroencapsulation and microencapsulation classifications depend on whether it contains one or more islets in the device.

Bottom Line: Encapsulation of pancreatic islets has been proposed and investigated for over three decades to improve islet transplantation outcomes and to eliminate the side effects of immunosuppressive medications.Of the numerous encapsulation systems developed in the past, microencapsulation have been studied most extensively so far.A wide variety of materials has been tested for microencapsulation in various animal models (including nonhuman primates or NHPs) and some materials were shown to induce immunoprotection to islet grafts without the need for chronic immunosuppression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Transplantation/Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612, USA ; Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

ABSTRACT
Encapsulation of pancreatic islets has been proposed and investigated for over three decades to improve islet transplantation outcomes and to eliminate the side effects of immunosuppressive medications. Of the numerous encapsulation systems developed in the past, microencapsulation have been studied most extensively so far. A wide variety of materials has been tested for microencapsulation in various animal models (including nonhuman primates or NHPs) and some materials were shown to induce immunoprotection to islet grafts without the need for chronic immunosuppression. Despite the initial success of microcapsules in NHP models, the combined use of islet transplantation (allograft) and microencapsulation has not yet been successful in clinical trials. This review consists of three sections: introduction to islet transplantation, transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets as a treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and present challenges and future perspectives.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus