Limits...
Sarcoidosis: Immunopathogenesis and Immunological Markers.

Loke WS, Herbert C, Thomas PS - Int J Chronic Dis (2013)

Bottom Line: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder invariably affecting the lungs.It is a disease with noteworthy variations in clinical manifestation and disease outcome and has been described as an "immune paradox" with peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites.Unfortunately, there currently exists no reliable biomarker to delineate the disease severity and prognosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation and Infection Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia ; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder invariably affecting the lungs. It is a disease with noteworthy variations in clinical manifestation and disease outcome and has been described as an "immune paradox" with peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. Despite extensive research, sarcoidosis remains a disease with undetermined aetiology. Current evidence supports the notion that the immune response in sarcoidosis is driven by a putative antigen in a genetically susceptible individual. Unfortunately, there currently exists no reliable biomarker to delineate the disease severity and prognosis. As such, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains a vexing clinical challenge. In this review, we outline the immunological features of sarcoidosis, discuss the evidence for and against various candidate etiological agents (infective and noninfective), describe the exhaled breath condensate, a novel method of identifying immunological biomarkers, and suggest other possible immunological biomarkers to better characterise the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic diagram of the EBC collecting apparatus. The subject blows into the mouth piece which is a one-way valve. The exhaled breath is channelled into a refrigerated collecting container.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590933&req=5

fig2: Schematic diagram of the EBC collecting apparatus. The subject blows into the mouth piece which is a one-way valve. The exhaled breath is channelled into a refrigerated collecting container.

Mentions: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been subjected to intensive research as it provides a noninvasive alternative for sampling the airway and alveolar space a promising source of biomarkers for a variety of lung conditions [95–97]. During exhalation, water evaporation droplets and volatile molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons) diffuse as gases from the alveoli and bronchi to the mouth. They are joined by nonvolatile molecules (e.g., leukotrienes, prostanoids, urea, and cytokines) from the airway lining fluid and condense via a refrigeration device to give EBC (Figure 2) [95, 98].


Sarcoidosis: Immunopathogenesis and Immunological Markers.

Loke WS, Herbert C, Thomas PS - Int J Chronic Dis (2013)

Schematic diagram of the EBC collecting apparatus. The subject blows into the mouth piece which is a one-way valve. The exhaled breath is channelled into a refrigerated collecting container.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590933&req=5

fig2: Schematic diagram of the EBC collecting apparatus. The subject blows into the mouth piece which is a one-way valve. The exhaled breath is channelled into a refrigerated collecting container.
Mentions: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been subjected to intensive research as it provides a noninvasive alternative for sampling the airway and alveolar space a promising source of biomarkers for a variety of lung conditions [95–97]. During exhalation, water evaporation droplets and volatile molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons) diffuse as gases from the alveoli and bronchi to the mouth. They are joined by nonvolatile molecules (e.g., leukotrienes, prostanoids, urea, and cytokines) from the airway lining fluid and condense via a refrigeration device to give EBC (Figure 2) [95, 98].

Bottom Line: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder invariably affecting the lungs.It is a disease with noteworthy variations in clinical manifestation and disease outcome and has been described as an "immune paradox" with peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites.Unfortunately, there currently exists no reliable biomarker to delineate the disease severity and prognosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation and Infection Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia ; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder invariably affecting the lungs. It is a disease with noteworthy variations in clinical manifestation and disease outcome and has been described as an "immune paradox" with peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. Despite extensive research, sarcoidosis remains a disease with undetermined aetiology. Current evidence supports the notion that the immune response in sarcoidosis is driven by a putative antigen in a genetically susceptible individual. Unfortunately, there currently exists no reliable biomarker to delineate the disease severity and prognosis. As such, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains a vexing clinical challenge. In this review, we outline the immunological features of sarcoidosis, discuss the evidence for and against various candidate etiological agents (infective and noninfective), describe the exhaled breath condensate, a novel method of identifying immunological biomarkers, and suggest other possible immunological biomarkers to better characterise the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus