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Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Serum of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lim MY, Thomas PS - Int J Chronic Dis (2013)

Bottom Line: Lung cancer, in particular, has a very high mortality rate due to the characteristically late diagnosis.In the serum, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 of the S100 proteins are proinflammatory markers.They have been indicated in several inflammatory diseases and cancers including secondary metastasis into the lung.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation and Infection Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia ; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are leading causes of deaths worldwide which are associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Lung cancer, in particular, has a very high mortality rate due to the characteristically late diagnosis. As such, identification of novel biomarkers which allow for early diagnosis of these diseases could improve outcome and survival rate. Markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are examples of potential diagnostic markers for both COPD and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They may even be useful in monitoring treatment response. In the serum, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 of the S100 proteins are proinflammatory markers. They have been indicated in several inflammatory diseases and cancers including secondary metastasis into the lung. It is highly likely that they not only have the potential to be diagnostic biomarkers for NSCLC but also prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

EBC consists of particles from ELF of alveoli, bronchi, and mouth, each with an unknown relative contribution.
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fig3: EBC consists of particles from ELF of alveoli, bronchi, and mouth, each with an unknown relative contribution.

Mentions: The introduction of oxidants into the lung from tobacco smoking activates the innate immune cells such as lung epithelial cells whereby damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released from injured cells [40]. Following this event, inflammation, which is the body's normal response to combat toxicants, is triggered [41–44] by the activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in airway epithelial cells and macrophages [29, 45]. The activated transcription factors are then responsible for the transcription of downstream inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) [34, 45–47]. The resultant elevated cytokine levels then attract more neutrophils and macrophages to augment inflammation (Figure 3) [29, 32, 45]. The degree of inflammation as evident by the infiltration of inflammatory cells correlates with disease severity [1, 19, 29].


Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Serum of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lim MY, Thomas PS - Int J Chronic Dis (2013)

EBC consists of particles from ELF of alveoli, bronchi, and mouth, each with an unknown relative contribution.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590922&req=5

fig3: EBC consists of particles from ELF of alveoli, bronchi, and mouth, each with an unknown relative contribution.
Mentions: The introduction of oxidants into the lung from tobacco smoking activates the innate immune cells such as lung epithelial cells whereby damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released from injured cells [40]. Following this event, inflammation, which is the body's normal response to combat toxicants, is triggered [41–44] by the activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in airway epithelial cells and macrophages [29, 45]. The activated transcription factors are then responsible for the transcription of downstream inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) [34, 45–47]. The resultant elevated cytokine levels then attract more neutrophils and macrophages to augment inflammation (Figure 3) [29, 32, 45]. The degree of inflammation as evident by the infiltration of inflammatory cells correlates with disease severity [1, 19, 29].

Bottom Line: Lung cancer, in particular, has a very high mortality rate due to the characteristically late diagnosis.In the serum, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 of the S100 proteins are proinflammatory markers.They have been indicated in several inflammatory diseases and cancers including secondary metastasis into the lung.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation and Infection Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia ; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are leading causes of deaths worldwide which are associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Lung cancer, in particular, has a very high mortality rate due to the characteristically late diagnosis. As such, identification of novel biomarkers which allow for early diagnosis of these diseases could improve outcome and survival rate. Markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are examples of potential diagnostic markers for both COPD and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They may even be useful in monitoring treatment response. In the serum, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 of the S100 proteins are proinflammatory markers. They have been indicated in several inflammatory diseases and cancers including secondary metastasis into the lung. It is highly likely that they not only have the potential to be diagnostic biomarkers for NSCLC but also prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus