Limits...
A Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic and Intense Exercise on the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Marker Adipokines, Adiponectin and Retinol Binding Protein-4.

Phillips A, Cobbold C - Int J Chronic Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis.Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations.Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF11 3AX, UK.

ABSTRACT
With a more sedentary population comes growing rates of obesity and increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. Exercise generally induces positive changes in traditional T2DM risk markers such as lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity; however alterations in concentrations of many circulating cytokines and their respective receptors are also becoming apparent. These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis. Plasma levels of two adipocyte-originating cytokines, adiponectin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4), alter following exercise. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-insulin resistance roles and its secretion increases with physical activity, whilst elevated RBP-4 leads to increased insulin resistance, and secretion decreases with increasing physical activity; thus these plasma adipokine levels alter favourably following exercise. Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations. Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The Worldwide prevalence of adult physical inactivity. The prevalence of inactivity in the UK, highlighted in red, was 63% in 2008. Globally this value is approximately 31%. Taken from the Global Health Observatory of World Health Organization, 2008. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country. Territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. Data source: World Health Organization. Map production: Public Health Information and Geographic Information System (GIS) World Health Organization. ©WHO 2011. All rights reserved.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590916&req=5

fig1: The Worldwide prevalence of adult physical inactivity. The prevalence of inactivity in the UK, highlighted in red, was 63% in 2008. Globally this value is approximately 31%. Taken from the Global Health Observatory of World Health Organization, 2008. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country. Territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. Data source: World Health Organization. Map production: Public Health Information and Geographic Information System (GIS) World Health Organization. ©WHO 2011. All rights reserved.

Mentions: Exercise is an important part of maintaining a healthy body. As well as aiding the maintenance of internal biochemical processes, exercise is an effective way of managing weight. Public health guidelines recommend individuals perform 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise a week in order to obtain optimal results, including weight loss, reduced blood pressure, and reduced cholesterol [8]. Despite the rewards, many people still complain that they “don't have the time” to exercise. Insufficient activity does not just affect the UK where approximately 65% of people do not undertake the recommended levels of exercise; it is a worldwide problem (Figure 1). Interestingly, research suggests that similar health benefits to 150 min/week aerobic exercise can be seen with 15 minute sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed on alternating days [11, 12].


A Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic and Intense Exercise on the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Marker Adipokines, Adiponectin and Retinol Binding Protein-4.

Phillips A, Cobbold C - Int J Chronic Dis (2014)

The Worldwide prevalence of adult physical inactivity. The prevalence of inactivity in the UK, highlighted in red, was 63% in 2008. Globally this value is approximately 31%. Taken from the Global Health Observatory of World Health Organization, 2008. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country. Territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. Data source: World Health Organization. Map production: Public Health Information and Geographic Information System (GIS) World Health Organization. ©WHO 2011. All rights reserved.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590916&req=5

fig1: The Worldwide prevalence of adult physical inactivity. The prevalence of inactivity in the UK, highlighted in red, was 63% in 2008. Globally this value is approximately 31%. Taken from the Global Health Observatory of World Health Organization, 2008. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country. Territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. Data source: World Health Organization. Map production: Public Health Information and Geographic Information System (GIS) World Health Organization. ©WHO 2011. All rights reserved.
Mentions: Exercise is an important part of maintaining a healthy body. As well as aiding the maintenance of internal biochemical processes, exercise is an effective way of managing weight. Public health guidelines recommend individuals perform 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise a week in order to obtain optimal results, including weight loss, reduced blood pressure, and reduced cholesterol [8]. Despite the rewards, many people still complain that they “don't have the time” to exercise. Insufficient activity does not just affect the UK where approximately 65% of people do not undertake the recommended levels of exercise; it is a worldwide problem (Figure 1). Interestingly, research suggests that similar health benefits to 150 min/week aerobic exercise can be seen with 15 minute sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed on alternating days [11, 12].

Bottom Line: These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis.Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations.Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF11 3AX, UK.

ABSTRACT
With a more sedentary population comes growing rates of obesity and increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. Exercise generally induces positive changes in traditional T2DM risk markers such as lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity; however alterations in concentrations of many circulating cytokines and their respective receptors are also becoming apparent. These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis. Plasma levels of two adipocyte-originating cytokines, adiponectin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4), alter following exercise. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-insulin resistance roles and its secretion increases with physical activity, whilst elevated RBP-4 leads to increased insulin resistance, and secretion decreases with increasing physical activity; thus these plasma adipokine levels alter favourably following exercise. Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations. Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus