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The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers.

Williams M, Harveson L, Melton J, Delobel A, Puentedura EJ - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2013)

Bottom Line: Main effects for time were not statistically significant.Conclusions.Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, P.O. Box 453029, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3029, USA.

ABSTRACT
Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4) with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch), and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Demonstration of each stretch included in the stretching protocol. Left to right: pectoralis major stretch, subscapularis stretch, and latissimus dorsi stretch.
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fig2: Demonstration of each stretch included in the stretching protocol. Left to right: pectoralis major stretch, subscapularis stretch, and latissimus dorsi stretch.

Mentions: To ensure the quality of the stretch, the examiner made sure that the subject's sternum remained on the table and the forearm remained horizontal. The latissimus dorsi muscle was stretched in a side-lying position on the side opposite to the throwing shoulder, with his shoulder abducted behind the head with the elbow bent. The knees were bent for comfort and stability. The examiner stood behind the subject and placed one hand on the hip and one on the elbow while pushing the elbow into the table. The subscapularis muscle was stretched with the subject lying supine, the throwing shoulder abducted to 90 degrees, and the elbow flexed to 90 degrees with the shoulder externally rotated as far as possible (see Figure 2). These stretches were adapted from McAtee and Charland [16].


The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers.

Williams M, Harveson L, Melton J, Delobel A, Puentedura EJ - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2013)

Demonstration of each stretch included in the stretching protocol. Left to right: pectoralis major stretch, subscapularis stretch, and latissimus dorsi stretch.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590899&req=5

fig2: Demonstration of each stretch included in the stretching protocol. Left to right: pectoralis major stretch, subscapularis stretch, and latissimus dorsi stretch.
Mentions: To ensure the quality of the stretch, the examiner made sure that the subject's sternum remained on the table and the forearm remained horizontal. The latissimus dorsi muscle was stretched in a side-lying position on the side opposite to the throwing shoulder, with his shoulder abducted behind the head with the elbow bent. The knees were bent for comfort and stability. The examiner stood behind the subject and placed one hand on the hip and one on the elbow while pushing the elbow into the table. The subscapularis muscle was stretched with the subject lying supine, the throwing shoulder abducted to 90 degrees, and the elbow flexed to 90 degrees with the shoulder externally rotated as far as possible (see Figure 2). These stretches were adapted from McAtee and Charland [16].

Bottom Line: Main effects for time were not statistically significant.Conclusions.Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, P.O. Box 453029, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3029, USA.

ABSTRACT
Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4) with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch), and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus