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The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers.

Williams M, Harveson L, Melton J, Delobel A, Puentedura EJ - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2013)

Bottom Line: Main effects for time were not statistically significant.Conclusions.Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, P.O. Box 453029, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3029, USA.

ABSTRACT
Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4) with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch), and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Each session was conducted according to the following flowchart. Subjects were randomly assigned to a stretching condition each session. The procedure was repeated over three different testing days until the subject completed all stretching conditions. Peak and average velocities were recorded each time.
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fig1: Each session was conducted according to the following flowchart. Subjects were randomly assigned to a stretching condition each session. The procedure was repeated over three different testing days until the subject completed all stretching conditions. Peak and average velocities were recorded each time.

Mentions: Each subject participated in 3 sessions, each with a different stretching protocol. The order of the protocols was randomly assigned for each subject. We used a counterbalanced randomization such that nine subjects started with each stretching protocol. At the beginning of each protocol, subjects completed a dynamic warm-up that included a light jog of 120 to 180 meters and playing catch (throwing and catching a baseball with another player) for 10 to 15 minutes. The warm-up was concluded when the subjects felt comfortable to participate in throwing at their maximal velocity. Participants were instructed not to include any stretching as part of their warm-up. After their warm-up, each subject was moved to the bullpen of the baseball field, where they threw from the mound, which was 18 meters away from the person catching the ball, and was instructed to throw 10 overhand pitches at their maximum velocity. The subject then received one of the three stretching protocols. Nine of the subjects began their sessions with static stretching, 9 began with PNF stretching, and the final 9 began with the control (no stretch) condition. Ten more pitches thrown at maximum velocity followed the stretching protocols. Velocity was measured for each pitch. Average and peak velocities of the 10 pitches were calculated and used for comparison between the different stretching protocols (see Figure 1).


The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers.

Williams M, Harveson L, Melton J, Delobel A, Puentedura EJ - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2013)

Each session was conducted according to the following flowchart. Subjects were randomly assigned to a stretching condition each session. The procedure was repeated over three different testing days until the subject completed all stretching conditions. Peak and average velocities were recorded each time.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590899&req=5

fig1: Each session was conducted according to the following flowchart. Subjects were randomly assigned to a stretching condition each session. The procedure was repeated over three different testing days until the subject completed all stretching conditions. Peak and average velocities were recorded each time.
Mentions: Each subject participated in 3 sessions, each with a different stretching protocol. The order of the protocols was randomly assigned for each subject. We used a counterbalanced randomization such that nine subjects started with each stretching protocol. At the beginning of each protocol, subjects completed a dynamic warm-up that included a light jog of 120 to 180 meters and playing catch (throwing and catching a baseball with another player) for 10 to 15 minutes. The warm-up was concluded when the subjects felt comfortable to participate in throwing at their maximal velocity. Participants were instructed not to include any stretching as part of their warm-up. After their warm-up, each subject was moved to the bullpen of the baseball field, where they threw from the mound, which was 18 meters away from the person catching the ball, and was instructed to throw 10 overhand pitches at their maximum velocity. The subject then received one of the three stretching protocols. Nine of the subjects began their sessions with static stretching, 9 began with PNF stretching, and the final 9 began with the control (no stretch) condition. Ten more pitches thrown at maximum velocity followed the stretching protocols. Velocity was measured for each pitch. Average and peak velocities of the 10 pitches were calculated and used for comparison between the different stretching protocols (see Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Main effects for time were not statistically significant.Conclusions.Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, P.O. Box 453029, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3029, USA.

ABSTRACT
Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4) with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch), and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus