Limits...
The Injury/Illness Performance Project (IIPP): A Novel Epidemiological Approach for Recording the Consequences of Sports Injuries and Illnesses.

Palmer-Green D, Fuller C, Jaques R, Hunter G - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2013)

Bottom Line: Results.For athlete illnesses (n = 378), the majority (P < 0.01) resulted in time-loss (270) compared with performance-restriction (101) (7 unclassified).Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

ABSTRACT
Background. Describing the frequency, severity, and causes of sports injuries and illnesses reliably is important for quantifying the risk to athletes and providing direction for prevention initiatives. Methods. Time-loss and/or medical-attention definitions have long been used in sports injury/illness epidemiology research, but the limitations to these definitions mean that some events are incorrectly classified or omitted completely, where athletes continue to train and compete at high levels but experience restrictions in their performance. Introducing a graded definition of performance-restriction may provide a solution to this issue. Results. Results from the Great Britain injury/illness performance project (IIPP) are presented using a performance-restriction adaptation of the accepted surveillance consensus methodologies. The IIPP involved 322 Olympic athletes (males: 172; female: 150) from 10 Great Britain Olympic sports between September 2009 and August 2012. Of all injuries (n = 565), 216 were classified as causing time-loss, 346 as causing performance-restriction, and 3 were unclassified. For athlete illnesses (n = 378), the majority (P < 0.01) resulted in time-loss (270) compared with performance-restriction (101) (7 unclassified). Conclusions. Successful implementation of prevention strategies relies on the correct characterisation of injury/illness risk factors. Including a performance-restriction classification could provide a deeper understanding of injuries/illnesses and better informed prevention initiatives.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Traditional hierarchy of injury/illness definition classification. (b) Alternative hierarchy of injury/illness definition classification. TL = time-loss; ∗ classification of an injury or illness is based on the initial status of the injury and not on any subsequent change of status during the time course of its recovery and ∗∗ while injuries/illnesses are always required to be classified as either time-loss or medical-attention (or performance-restriction) is should be noted that there can and always will be overlap between categories.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590896&req=5

fig1: (a) Traditional hierarchy of injury/illness definition classification. (b) Alternative hierarchy of injury/illness definition classification. TL = time-loss; ∗ classification of an injury or illness is based on the initial status of the injury and not on any subsequent change of status during the time course of its recovery and ∗∗ while injuries/illnesses are always required to be classified as either time-loss or medical-attention (or performance-restriction) is should be noted that there can and always will be overlap between categories.

Mentions: While the majority of sports injury definitions encompass a time-loss classification the definitions are somewhat categorical in their use of the terms ‘time-loss' or ‘absence' from training or competition that is complete absence. Limitations attached to these definitions have been described by Bahr; [20] in particular, it was questioned as to how appropriate these definitions were when applied to sports such as swimming or athletics where there are few time-loss injuries but an abundance of overuse/chronic performance-limiting injuries [4, 5, 8]. Bahr [20] focussed his discussion on the causes of performance-limiting overuse injuries but, because many athletes continue to train (and even compete) at high levels when experiencing pain and loss of function through injury or illness [20, 23, 30], he also highlighted the need to develop scales for assessing function-limiting injuries. Subsequent papers began to propose alternate methods in injury recording around specific joints, overuse injury, and athletes' levels of impairment [23, 24]. The focus of the present study was to develop a methodology that provided a measure of the impact of both time-loss injuries/illnesses and injuries/illnesses that did not meet the definition of “time-loss” but resulted in a restriction or modification to an athlete's regular training (e.g., an upper respiratory tract illness lasting 20 days resulting in a 60% level of training capacity). If this latter type of illness was included as a recordable event according to most consensus methodologies, it would create an overestimation of the illness burden (because 20 full days of training were not lost). Conversely, if the strict “absence” criteria were applied, the event would not be recorded despite resulting in a significant impact on the athlete (i.e., 40% reduction in training capacity over a period of 20 days). The division between medical-attention (with no time-loss) and time-loss definitions is therefore blurred, with the potential for some injury/illness events to lie between the two extremes. Figures 1(a) and 1(b) provide a visual description of this situation with Figure 1(b) presenting a potential alternative hierarchy.


The Injury/Illness Performance Project (IIPP): A Novel Epidemiological Approach for Recording the Consequences of Sports Injuries and Illnesses.

Palmer-Green D, Fuller C, Jaques R, Hunter G - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2013)

(a) Traditional hierarchy of injury/illness definition classification. (b) Alternative hierarchy of injury/illness definition classification. TL = time-loss; ∗ classification of an injury or illness is based on the initial status of the injury and not on any subsequent change of status during the time course of its recovery and ∗∗ while injuries/illnesses are always required to be classified as either time-loss or medical-attention (or performance-restriction) is should be noted that there can and always will be overlap between categories.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590896&req=5

fig1: (a) Traditional hierarchy of injury/illness definition classification. (b) Alternative hierarchy of injury/illness definition classification. TL = time-loss; ∗ classification of an injury or illness is based on the initial status of the injury and not on any subsequent change of status during the time course of its recovery and ∗∗ while injuries/illnesses are always required to be classified as either time-loss or medical-attention (or performance-restriction) is should be noted that there can and always will be overlap between categories.
Mentions: While the majority of sports injury definitions encompass a time-loss classification the definitions are somewhat categorical in their use of the terms ‘time-loss' or ‘absence' from training or competition that is complete absence. Limitations attached to these definitions have been described by Bahr; [20] in particular, it was questioned as to how appropriate these definitions were when applied to sports such as swimming or athletics where there are few time-loss injuries but an abundance of overuse/chronic performance-limiting injuries [4, 5, 8]. Bahr [20] focussed his discussion on the causes of performance-limiting overuse injuries but, because many athletes continue to train (and even compete) at high levels when experiencing pain and loss of function through injury or illness [20, 23, 30], he also highlighted the need to develop scales for assessing function-limiting injuries. Subsequent papers began to propose alternate methods in injury recording around specific joints, overuse injury, and athletes' levels of impairment [23, 24]. The focus of the present study was to develop a methodology that provided a measure of the impact of both time-loss injuries/illnesses and injuries/illnesses that did not meet the definition of “time-loss” but resulted in a restriction or modification to an athlete's regular training (e.g., an upper respiratory tract illness lasting 20 days resulting in a 60% level of training capacity). If this latter type of illness was included as a recordable event according to most consensus methodologies, it would create an overestimation of the illness burden (because 20 full days of training were not lost). Conversely, if the strict “absence” criteria were applied, the event would not be recorded despite resulting in a significant impact on the athlete (i.e., 40% reduction in training capacity over a period of 20 days). The division between medical-attention (with no time-loss) and time-loss definitions is therefore blurred, with the potential for some injury/illness events to lie between the two extremes. Figures 1(a) and 1(b) provide a visual description of this situation with Figure 1(b) presenting a potential alternative hierarchy.

Bottom Line: Results.For athlete illnesses (n = 378), the majority (P < 0.01) resulted in time-loss (270) compared with performance-restriction (101) (7 unclassified).Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

ABSTRACT
Background. Describing the frequency, severity, and causes of sports injuries and illnesses reliably is important for quantifying the risk to athletes and providing direction for prevention initiatives. Methods. Time-loss and/or medical-attention definitions have long been used in sports injury/illness epidemiology research, but the limitations to these definitions mean that some events are incorrectly classified or omitted completely, where athletes continue to train and compete at high levels but experience restrictions in their performance. Introducing a graded definition of performance-restriction may provide a solution to this issue. Results. Results from the Great Britain injury/illness performance project (IIPP) are presented using a performance-restriction adaptation of the accepted surveillance consensus methodologies. The IIPP involved 322 Olympic athletes (males: 172; female: 150) from 10 Great Britain Olympic sports between September 2009 and August 2012. Of all injuries (n = 565), 216 were classified as causing time-loss, 346 as causing performance-restriction, and 3 were unclassified. For athlete illnesses (n = 378), the majority (P < 0.01) resulted in time-loss (270) compared with performance-restriction (101) (7 unclassified). Conclusions. Successful implementation of prevention strategies relies on the correct characterisation of injury/illness risk factors. Including a performance-restriction classification could provide a deeper understanding of injuries/illnesses and better informed prevention initiatives.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus