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Effects of Cooling on Ankle Muscle Strength, Electromyography, and Gait Ground Reaction Forces.

Halder A, Gao C, Miller M - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2014)

Bottom Line: The effects of cooling on neuromuscular function and performance during gait are not fully examined.There was a significantly reduced isometric maximum force in the TA muscle (P < 0.001) after cooling.We found no significant changes in the gait GRFs and RCOF on dry and level surface.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The effects of cooling on neuromuscular function and performance during gait are not fully examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local cooling for 20 min in cold water at 10°C in a climate chamber also at 10°C on maximal isometric force and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lower leg muscles. Gait ground reaction forces (GRFs) were also assessed. Sixteen healthy university students participated in the within subject design experimental study. Isometric forces of the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were measured using a handheld dynamometer and the EMG was recorded using surface electrodes. Ground reaction forces during gait and the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) were recorded using a force plate. There was a significantly reduced isometric maximum force in the TA muscle (P < 0.001) after cooling. The mean EMG amplitude of GM muscle was increased after cooling (P < 0.003), indicating that fatigue was induced. We found no significant changes in the gait GRFs and RCOF on dry and level surface. These findings may indicate that local moderate cooling 20 min of 10°C cold water, may influence maximal muscle performance without affecting activities at sub-maximal effort.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean skin temperature over the two muscles (TA and GM) for four measurement phases. Tsk-pre: before cooling, Tsk-post cooling 1: immediately after cooling, Tsk-post cooling 2: after the postcooling MVC test, and Tsk-post cooling 3:end of gait trials.
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fig6: Mean skin temperature over the two muscles (TA and GM) for four measurement phases. Tsk-pre: before cooling, Tsk-post cooling 1: immediately after cooling, Tsk-post cooling 2: after the postcooling MVC test, and Tsk-post cooling 3:end of gait trials.

Mentions: All sixteen subjects successfully completed 20 minutes of cooling on both legs in cold water at 10°C in the cold chamber. The average skin temperatures over the two muscles (TA and GM) decreased by about 15.7°C and 15.6°C, respectively, after 20 minutes of cooling. Most of the subjects reported reduced sensation after 20 minutes cooling at 10°C, which were gradually regained during walking trials. Skin temperatures gradually increased by about 2.9 and 2.2°C for TA and GM, respectively, after postcooling MVC tests, even though the tests were performed in the cold chamber. At the end of all gait trials, skin temperatures increased by about 4 to 5°C. The skin temperature changes over the two muscles throughout the test period are shown in Figure 6.


Effects of Cooling on Ankle Muscle Strength, Electromyography, and Gait Ground Reaction Forces.

Halder A, Gao C, Miller M - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2014)

Mean skin temperature over the two muscles (TA and GM) for four measurement phases. Tsk-pre: before cooling, Tsk-post cooling 1: immediately after cooling, Tsk-post cooling 2: after the postcooling MVC test, and Tsk-post cooling 3:end of gait trials.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590893&req=5

fig6: Mean skin temperature over the two muscles (TA and GM) for four measurement phases. Tsk-pre: before cooling, Tsk-post cooling 1: immediately after cooling, Tsk-post cooling 2: after the postcooling MVC test, and Tsk-post cooling 3:end of gait trials.
Mentions: All sixteen subjects successfully completed 20 minutes of cooling on both legs in cold water at 10°C in the cold chamber. The average skin temperatures over the two muscles (TA and GM) decreased by about 15.7°C and 15.6°C, respectively, after 20 minutes of cooling. Most of the subjects reported reduced sensation after 20 minutes cooling at 10°C, which were gradually regained during walking trials. Skin temperatures gradually increased by about 2.9 and 2.2°C for TA and GM, respectively, after postcooling MVC tests, even though the tests were performed in the cold chamber. At the end of all gait trials, skin temperatures increased by about 4 to 5°C. The skin temperature changes over the two muscles throughout the test period are shown in Figure 6.

Bottom Line: The effects of cooling on neuromuscular function and performance during gait are not fully examined.There was a significantly reduced isometric maximum force in the TA muscle (P < 0.001) after cooling.We found no significant changes in the gait GRFs and RCOF on dry and level surface.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The effects of cooling on neuromuscular function and performance during gait are not fully examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local cooling for 20 min in cold water at 10°C in a climate chamber also at 10°C on maximal isometric force and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lower leg muscles. Gait ground reaction forces (GRFs) were also assessed. Sixteen healthy university students participated in the within subject design experimental study. Isometric forces of the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were measured using a handheld dynamometer and the EMG was recorded using surface electrodes. Ground reaction forces during gait and the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) were recorded using a force plate. There was a significantly reduced isometric maximum force in the TA muscle (P < 0.001) after cooling. The mean EMG amplitude of GM muscle was increased after cooling (P < 0.003), indicating that fatigue was induced. We found no significant changes in the gait GRFs and RCOF on dry and level surface. These findings may indicate that local moderate cooling 20 min of 10°C cold water, may influence maximal muscle performance without affecting activities at sub-maximal effort.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus