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Strength Gains as a Result of Brief, Infrequent Resistance Exercise in Older Adults.

Fisher J, Steele J, McKinnon P, McKinnon S - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2014)

Bottom Line: Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease.However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches.Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male) and 19 weeks (female).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Southampton Solent University, East Park Terrace, Southampton SO14 0YN, UK.

ABSTRACT
Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Resistance exercise has been shown to counter all of these effects of aging and, in turn, reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches. The aim of this research was to consider strength increases as a result of brief, infrequent resistance exercise. The present study offers data from 33 (14 male and 19 female) older adults (M = 55 years) who underwent brief (<15 minutes per exercise session), infrequent (2×/week), resistance exercise to a high intensity of effort (6-repetition maximum) at a controlled repetition duration (10 seconds concentric : 10 seconds eccentric) on 5 resistance machines (chest press, leg press, pull-down, seated row, and overhead press). Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male) and 19 weeks (female). Significant strength increases were identified for all exercises. With the detailed health benefits obtainable, the present study suggests that resistance exercise can be efficacious in much smaller volumes than previously considered.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean change in absolute training load with 95% CIs for males and females.
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fig1: Mean change in absolute training load with 95% CIs for males and females.

Mentions: Beginning training loads are presented in Table 3. Males had a significantly higher absolute training load at baseline than females for torso arm (t(31) = 3.488, P = 0.002), chest press (t(31) = 4.215, P < 0.001), seated row (t(30) = 2.603, P = 0.014), overhead press (t(30) = 4.087, P < 0.001), and leg press (t(30) = 3.898, P = 0.001) exercises. Strength relative to body mass did not differ at baseline between males and females for any exercise. Figure 1 presents changes in absolute training load from first to last training sessions for each exercise for males and females. Change in absolute training load did not significantly differ between males and females for any exercise. 95% CIs suggest significant improvements in absolute strength for every exercise with large ESs for both males and females, respectively, of 2.14 and 3.31 for torso arm, 1.59 and 1.59 for chest press, 2.67 and 2.84 for seated row, 2.01 and 2.20 for overhead press, and 2.19 and 2.36 for leg press exercises. Relative increases in training load did not differ between males and females, respectively, for torso arm (68.7 ± 40.1% versus 90.8 ± 38.1%), chest press (55.8 ± 39.4% versus 59.0 ± 39.9%), seated row (65.0 ± 29.3 versus 81.2 ± 40.3%), and overhead press (39.0 ± 20.4% versus 58.0 ± 30.0%) exercises but was significantly greater for females for the leg press exercise (38.4 ± 18.2% versus 59.0 ± 28.6%; t(30) = −2.297, P = 0.018). Figure 2 presents changes in training load relative to body mass from first to last training sessions for each exercise for males and females. Changes in training load relative to body mass did not differ between genders for torso arm, chest press, seated row, or overhead press; however, they were significantly greater for females for the leg press exercise (t(30) = −2.091, P = 0.045).


Strength Gains as a Result of Brief, Infrequent Resistance Exercise in Older Adults.

Fisher J, Steele J, McKinnon P, McKinnon S - J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) (2014)

Mean change in absolute training load with 95% CIs for males and females.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590889&req=5

fig1: Mean change in absolute training load with 95% CIs for males and females.
Mentions: Beginning training loads are presented in Table 3. Males had a significantly higher absolute training load at baseline than females for torso arm (t(31) = 3.488, P = 0.002), chest press (t(31) = 4.215, P < 0.001), seated row (t(30) = 2.603, P = 0.014), overhead press (t(30) = 4.087, P < 0.001), and leg press (t(30) = 3.898, P = 0.001) exercises. Strength relative to body mass did not differ at baseline between males and females for any exercise. Figure 1 presents changes in absolute training load from first to last training sessions for each exercise for males and females. Change in absolute training load did not significantly differ between males and females for any exercise. 95% CIs suggest significant improvements in absolute strength for every exercise with large ESs for both males and females, respectively, of 2.14 and 3.31 for torso arm, 1.59 and 1.59 for chest press, 2.67 and 2.84 for seated row, 2.01 and 2.20 for overhead press, and 2.19 and 2.36 for leg press exercises. Relative increases in training load did not differ between males and females, respectively, for torso arm (68.7 ± 40.1% versus 90.8 ± 38.1%), chest press (55.8 ± 39.4% versus 59.0 ± 39.9%), seated row (65.0 ± 29.3 versus 81.2 ± 40.3%), and overhead press (39.0 ± 20.4% versus 58.0 ± 30.0%) exercises but was significantly greater for females for the leg press exercise (38.4 ± 18.2% versus 59.0 ± 28.6%; t(30) = −2.297, P = 0.018). Figure 2 presents changes in training load relative to body mass from first to last training sessions for each exercise for males and females. Changes in training load relative to body mass did not differ between genders for torso arm, chest press, seated row, or overhead press; however, they were significantly greater for females for the leg press exercise (t(30) = −2.091, P = 0.045).

Bottom Line: Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease.However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches.Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male) and 19 weeks (female).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Southampton Solent University, East Park Terrace, Southampton SO14 0YN, UK.

ABSTRACT
Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Resistance exercise has been shown to counter all of these effects of aging and, in turn, reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches. The aim of this research was to consider strength increases as a result of brief, infrequent resistance exercise. The present study offers data from 33 (14 male and 19 female) older adults (M = 55 years) who underwent brief (<15 minutes per exercise session), infrequent (2×/week), resistance exercise to a high intensity of effort (6-repetition maximum) at a controlled repetition duration (10 seconds concentric : 10 seconds eccentric) on 5 resistance machines (chest press, leg press, pull-down, seated row, and overhead press). Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male) and 19 weeks (female). Significant strength increases were identified for all exercises. With the detailed health benefits obtainable, the present study suggests that resistance exercise can be efficacious in much smaller volumes than previously considered.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus