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Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in Urban Rats and Their Histopathological Reaction in the Livers.

Sinniah B, Narasiman M, Habib S, Gaik Bei O - J Vet Med (2014)

Bottom Line: They appear as yellowish white nodules, measuring 1-7 mm in diameter or in streaks scattered widely over the serosal surface of the liver.Cysticercus fasciolaris infections are recognized morphologically by their shape (round or oval) and are creamy white in colour.Histological studies of Calodium hepaticum showed areas of granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas around the dead ova and adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory Based Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, No. 3 Jalan Greentown, 30450 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Humans can get infected with several zoonotic diseases from being in close contact with rats. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and histopathological changes caused by Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in infected livers of wild caught urban rats. Of the 98 urban rats (Rattus rattus diardii and Rattus norvegicus) autopsied, 64.3% were infected; 44.9% were infected with Caladium hepatica, 39.3% were infected with Cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were infected with both parasites. High infection rates suggest that urban rats are common reservoir for both parasites, which are potentially a threat to man. Calodium hepaticum infections were identified by the presence of ova or adults in the liver parenchyma. They appear as yellowish white nodules, measuring 1-7 mm in diameter or in streaks scattered widely over the serosal surface of the liver. Cysticercus fasciolaris infections are recognized morphologically by their shape (round or oval) and are creamy white in colour. Histological studies of Calodium hepaticum showed areas of granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas around the dead ova and adults. In almost all cases, the rats appeared robust, looked healthy, and showed no visible signs of hepatic failure despite the fact that more than 64.0% of their livers were infected by either one or both parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cluster of Calodium hepaticum eggs surrounded by granulomatous lesion. Bioperculated ova with polar prominence at each end that are characteristic of C. hepaticum are seen (haematoxylin and eosin stain: ×40).
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fig3: Cluster of Calodium hepaticum eggs surrounded by granulomatous lesion. Bioperculated ova with polar prominence at each end that are characteristic of C. hepaticum are seen (haematoxylin and eosin stain: ×40).

Mentions: Of the 98 rats examined, 64.0% were infected, of which 44.9% were positive with Calodium hepaticum, 39.3% were positive with Cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were positive with both as shown in Table 1. None of the six shrews examined were infected with these two parasites. Gross examination of the infected livers showed firm whitish yellow nodules (1–7 mm) or appeared in patches or as irregular streaks, randomly scattered in the serosal surface. Cysticercus fasciolaris cysts measured, on an average, 9–14 mm in diameter. Each cyst contained a single larva measuring 14–31 cm in length, with a scolex containing two rows of hooks, 4 suckers followed by a very long neck. The infected rats mostly had multiple cysts, which appeared creamy white in colour, oval or round in shape, embedded within the liver as shown in Figure 1. Prior to necropsy, none of the rats exhibited any adverse clinical signs. Histopathological studies showed that encapsulation by Cysticercus fasciolaris caused very little fibrotic changes in the rats. In some signs of inflammation with periportal eosinophil infiltrates, microabscesses and prominent Kupffer cells were seen. In some livers, the larvae were seen encapsulated by connective tissue surrounded by mild to moderate inflammatory infiltrates predominantly composing lymphocytes, macrophages, moderate eosinophils, and few large scattered fibroblasts. In few livers, mild fibrotic lesions were seen around the cyst, as shown in Figure 2. Calodium hepaticum ova are barrel-shaped and unembryonated and have typical bipolar plugs on either end with prominent radial striations on the outer layer of the egg shell. The eggs measured, on an average, 22 μm in width and 51 μm in length as shown in Figure 3. Histopathological section of infected livers showed areas of granulomatous reaction. These responses were more profound around the ova of Calodium hepaticum infection with fibrous inflammatory reaction, as shown in Figure 4. Tissue reaction around dead Calodium hepaticum worms or ova consisted of a large numbers of inflammatory cells, mainly mononuclear leukocytes, few polymorphs, and eosinophils, as shown in Figure 5. Microscopic studies showed multiple nodular microgranulomas and coalescing macrogranulomas with intralesional parasitic eggs. Occasionally adult worms were seen scattered in the liver. Small granulomas (microgranulomas) in the liver of some rats are comprised of solid aggregates of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and eosinophils. In few cases, the granulomas contained no fragments of worms, eggs, or any trace of worm derived material. Thin and thick peripheral lesions are most commonly characterized by fibrous capsules, containing lymphocytes, small to moderate amounts of neutrophils, and plasma cells. The core of the nodules contained mainly neutrophils with necrotic debris, epithelioid cells, few multinucleated cells, eosinophils, and occasionally calcified materials. In addition the central hepatic vein was moderately dilated while the surrounding sinusoids in the livers contained erythrocytes and a few inflammatory cells. Fibrocellular septae, separated the hepatic parenchyma into irregular portions, were noted in the vicinity of granulomatous reaction. Periportal inflammatory infiltration and hepatocyte regeneration were also observed.


Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in Urban Rats and Their Histopathological Reaction in the Livers.

Sinniah B, Narasiman M, Habib S, Gaik Bei O - J Vet Med (2014)

Cluster of Calodium hepaticum eggs surrounded by granulomatous lesion. Bioperculated ova with polar prominence at each end that are characteristic of C. hepaticum are seen (haematoxylin and eosin stain: ×40).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590885&req=5

fig3: Cluster of Calodium hepaticum eggs surrounded by granulomatous lesion. Bioperculated ova with polar prominence at each end that are characteristic of C. hepaticum are seen (haematoxylin and eosin stain: ×40).
Mentions: Of the 98 rats examined, 64.0% were infected, of which 44.9% were positive with Calodium hepaticum, 39.3% were positive with Cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were positive with both as shown in Table 1. None of the six shrews examined were infected with these two parasites. Gross examination of the infected livers showed firm whitish yellow nodules (1–7 mm) or appeared in patches or as irregular streaks, randomly scattered in the serosal surface. Cysticercus fasciolaris cysts measured, on an average, 9–14 mm in diameter. Each cyst contained a single larva measuring 14–31 cm in length, with a scolex containing two rows of hooks, 4 suckers followed by a very long neck. The infected rats mostly had multiple cysts, which appeared creamy white in colour, oval or round in shape, embedded within the liver as shown in Figure 1. Prior to necropsy, none of the rats exhibited any adverse clinical signs. Histopathological studies showed that encapsulation by Cysticercus fasciolaris caused very little fibrotic changes in the rats. In some signs of inflammation with periportal eosinophil infiltrates, microabscesses and prominent Kupffer cells were seen. In some livers, the larvae were seen encapsulated by connective tissue surrounded by mild to moderate inflammatory infiltrates predominantly composing lymphocytes, macrophages, moderate eosinophils, and few large scattered fibroblasts. In few livers, mild fibrotic lesions were seen around the cyst, as shown in Figure 2. Calodium hepaticum ova are barrel-shaped and unembryonated and have typical bipolar plugs on either end with prominent radial striations on the outer layer of the egg shell. The eggs measured, on an average, 22 μm in width and 51 μm in length as shown in Figure 3. Histopathological section of infected livers showed areas of granulomatous reaction. These responses were more profound around the ova of Calodium hepaticum infection with fibrous inflammatory reaction, as shown in Figure 4. Tissue reaction around dead Calodium hepaticum worms or ova consisted of a large numbers of inflammatory cells, mainly mononuclear leukocytes, few polymorphs, and eosinophils, as shown in Figure 5. Microscopic studies showed multiple nodular microgranulomas and coalescing macrogranulomas with intralesional parasitic eggs. Occasionally adult worms were seen scattered in the liver. Small granulomas (microgranulomas) in the liver of some rats are comprised of solid aggregates of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and eosinophils. In few cases, the granulomas contained no fragments of worms, eggs, or any trace of worm derived material. Thin and thick peripheral lesions are most commonly characterized by fibrous capsules, containing lymphocytes, small to moderate amounts of neutrophils, and plasma cells. The core of the nodules contained mainly neutrophils with necrotic debris, epithelioid cells, few multinucleated cells, eosinophils, and occasionally calcified materials. In addition the central hepatic vein was moderately dilated while the surrounding sinusoids in the livers contained erythrocytes and a few inflammatory cells. Fibrocellular septae, separated the hepatic parenchyma into irregular portions, were noted in the vicinity of granulomatous reaction. Periportal inflammatory infiltration and hepatocyte regeneration were also observed.

Bottom Line: They appear as yellowish white nodules, measuring 1-7 mm in diameter or in streaks scattered widely over the serosal surface of the liver.Cysticercus fasciolaris infections are recognized morphologically by their shape (round or oval) and are creamy white in colour.Histological studies of Calodium hepaticum showed areas of granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas around the dead ova and adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory Based Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, No. 3 Jalan Greentown, 30450 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Humans can get infected with several zoonotic diseases from being in close contact with rats. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and histopathological changes caused by Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in infected livers of wild caught urban rats. Of the 98 urban rats (Rattus rattus diardii and Rattus norvegicus) autopsied, 64.3% were infected; 44.9% were infected with Caladium hepatica, 39.3% were infected with Cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were infected with both parasites. High infection rates suggest that urban rats are common reservoir for both parasites, which are potentially a threat to man. Calodium hepaticum infections were identified by the presence of ova or adults in the liver parenchyma. They appear as yellowish white nodules, measuring 1-7 mm in diameter or in streaks scattered widely over the serosal surface of the liver. Cysticercus fasciolaris infections are recognized morphologically by their shape (round or oval) and are creamy white in colour. Histological studies of Calodium hepaticum showed areas of granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas around the dead ova and adults. In almost all cases, the rats appeared robust, looked healthy, and showed no visible signs of hepatic failure despite the fact that more than 64.0% of their livers were infected by either one or both parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus