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The Immunology of Mammary Gland of Dairy Ruminants between Healthy and Inflammatory Conditions.

Ezzat Alnakip M, Quintela-Baluja M, Böhme K, Fernández-No I, Caamaño-Antelo S, Calo-Mata P, Barros-Velázquez J - J Vet Med (2014)

Bottom Line: A comprehensive understanding of MG immunity in both healthy and inflammatory conditions will be an important key to understand the nature of IMIs caused by specific pathogens and greatly contributes to the development of effective control methods and appropriate detection techniques.Consequently, this review aims to provide a detailed overview of antimicrobial defences in the MG under healthy and inflammatory conditions.In this sense, we will focus on pathogen-dependent variations in IRs mounted by the host during IMI and discuss the potential ramifications of these variations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, School of Veterinary Sciences/College of Biotechnology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Lugo, Rúa Carballo Calero, 27002 Lugo, Spain ; Food Control Department, Dairy Division, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Al Sharkia 44519, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
The health of dairy animals, particularly the milk-producing mammary glands, is essential to the dairy industry because of the crucial hygienic and economic aspects of ensuring production of high quality milk. Due to its high prevalence, mastitis is considered the most important threat to dairy industry, due to its impacts on animal health and milk production and thus on economic benefits. The MG is protected by several defence mechanisms that prevent microbial penetration and surveillance. However, several factors can attenuate the host immune response (IR), and the possession of various virulence and resistance factors by different mastitis-causing microorganisms greatly limits immune defences and promotes establishment of intramammary infections (IMIs). A comprehensive understanding of MG immunity in both healthy and inflammatory conditions will be an important key to understand the nature of IMIs caused by specific pathogens and greatly contributes to the development of effective control methods and appropriate detection techniques. Consequently, this review aims to provide a detailed overview of antimicrobial defences in the MG under healthy and inflammatory conditions. In this sense, we will focus on pathogen-dependent variations in IRs mounted by the host during IMI and discuss the potential ramifications of these variations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Different subsets of MG lymphocytes [27–32].
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Different subsets of MG lymphocytes [27–32].

Mentions: Lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a type of immune cells that mediate specific responses to pathogens. Lymphocytes recognise a variety of antigenic structures via membrane receptors, which define their specificity, diversity, and memory characteristics. T- and B-lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells are distinct lymphocyte subsets that operate in the MG (Figure 1), although they differ in function and protein products [30]. During IMI, preferential trafficking of certain lymphocyte subpopulations to specific mammary tissue foci occurs [28, 76] and marked changes in milk lymphocyte count and composition during IMIs have been reported [45]. Once activated, lymphocytes can regulate both specific and nonspecific IRs [77]. Additionally, the AIS response is mainly mediated by memory lymphocytes, which respond quickly to threats to which they have previously been exposed [33]. It must be mentioned that the presence of specific lymphocyte subsets can affect the total lymphocyte function and even the whole IR. For example, the activation of CD8+ T-cells during certain bacterial IMIs, such as Staph. aureus, can suppress important host IRs and predispose to chronic pattern of IMI [78, 79]. Unfortunately, the exact roles of lymphocytes during IMI and their subsets are complex and are not fully defined. Even in healthy MGs, the composition of the lymphocyte population varies during the lactation cycle [28, 76, 80]; the consequences to MG immunity are still not fully understood. Additionally, MG lymphocytes exhibit hyporesponsiveness to mitogenic, antigenic, and allogeneic stimuli compared to blood lymphocytes, possibly due to the presence of distinct lymphocyte subsets, high proportion of memory T-lymphocytes present in the MG [28], and/or less efficient presentation of Ags by Ag-presenting MG cells [6].


The Immunology of Mammary Gland of Dairy Ruminants between Healthy and Inflammatory Conditions.

Ezzat Alnakip M, Quintela-Baluja M, Böhme K, Fernández-No I, Caamaño-Antelo S, Calo-Mata P, Barros-Velázquez J - J Vet Med (2014)

Different subsets of MG lymphocytes [27–32].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590879&req=5

fig1: Different subsets of MG lymphocytes [27–32].
Mentions: Lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a type of immune cells that mediate specific responses to pathogens. Lymphocytes recognise a variety of antigenic structures via membrane receptors, which define their specificity, diversity, and memory characteristics. T- and B-lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells are distinct lymphocyte subsets that operate in the MG (Figure 1), although they differ in function and protein products [30]. During IMI, preferential trafficking of certain lymphocyte subpopulations to specific mammary tissue foci occurs [28, 76] and marked changes in milk lymphocyte count and composition during IMIs have been reported [45]. Once activated, lymphocytes can regulate both specific and nonspecific IRs [77]. Additionally, the AIS response is mainly mediated by memory lymphocytes, which respond quickly to threats to which they have previously been exposed [33]. It must be mentioned that the presence of specific lymphocyte subsets can affect the total lymphocyte function and even the whole IR. For example, the activation of CD8+ T-cells during certain bacterial IMIs, such as Staph. aureus, can suppress important host IRs and predispose to chronic pattern of IMI [78, 79]. Unfortunately, the exact roles of lymphocytes during IMI and their subsets are complex and are not fully defined. Even in healthy MGs, the composition of the lymphocyte population varies during the lactation cycle [28, 76, 80]; the consequences to MG immunity are still not fully understood. Additionally, MG lymphocytes exhibit hyporesponsiveness to mitogenic, antigenic, and allogeneic stimuli compared to blood lymphocytes, possibly due to the presence of distinct lymphocyte subsets, high proportion of memory T-lymphocytes present in the MG [28], and/or less efficient presentation of Ags by Ag-presenting MG cells [6].

Bottom Line: A comprehensive understanding of MG immunity in both healthy and inflammatory conditions will be an important key to understand the nature of IMIs caused by specific pathogens and greatly contributes to the development of effective control methods and appropriate detection techniques.Consequently, this review aims to provide a detailed overview of antimicrobial defences in the MG under healthy and inflammatory conditions.In this sense, we will focus on pathogen-dependent variations in IRs mounted by the host during IMI and discuss the potential ramifications of these variations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, School of Veterinary Sciences/College of Biotechnology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Lugo, Rúa Carballo Calero, 27002 Lugo, Spain ; Food Control Department, Dairy Division, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Al Sharkia 44519, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
The health of dairy animals, particularly the milk-producing mammary glands, is essential to the dairy industry because of the crucial hygienic and economic aspects of ensuring production of high quality milk. Due to its high prevalence, mastitis is considered the most important threat to dairy industry, due to its impacts on animal health and milk production and thus on economic benefits. The MG is protected by several defence mechanisms that prevent microbial penetration and surveillance. However, several factors can attenuate the host immune response (IR), and the possession of various virulence and resistance factors by different mastitis-causing microorganisms greatly limits immune defences and promotes establishment of intramammary infections (IMIs). A comprehensive understanding of MG immunity in both healthy and inflammatory conditions will be an important key to understand the nature of IMIs caused by specific pathogens and greatly contributes to the development of effective control methods and appropriate detection techniques. Consequently, this review aims to provide a detailed overview of antimicrobial defences in the MG under healthy and inflammatory conditions. In this sense, we will focus on pathogen-dependent variations in IRs mounted by the host during IMI and discuss the potential ramifications of these variations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus