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Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

Lewis SR, Ellison SP, Dascanio JJ, Lindsay DS, Gogal RM, Werre SR, Surendran N, Breen ME, Heid BM, Andrews FM, Buechner-Maxwell VA, Witonsky SG - J Vet Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators.Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression.Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA ; Rangiora Veterinary Centre, Rangiora 7400, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Differences in log-transformed stimulation indices for incubation with PMA/I between S. neurona experimentally infected and control horses. Control horses had a significantly higher stimulation index for PMA/I responses on Day 35, with a pattern demonstrating higher indices in the control group towards the end of the experiment. Lymphocyte proliferation assays using the (3H)-thymidine assay were performed with a variety of mitogens, including the pan-leukocyte stimulant, PMA/I. Stimulation indices were calculated by dividing the average counts per minute for cells stimulated with each mitogen, by the counts per minute for spontaneously proliferating cells. Average stimulation index was log-transformed and plotted against time for control (blue) and infected (white) horses. The error bars represent standard deviation about the mean. The blue star indicates a significant difference (P < 0.05). Day 0 = first day of experiment (Day 1 of infection).
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fig4: Differences in log-transformed stimulation indices for incubation with PMA/I between S. neurona experimentally infected and control horses. Control horses had a significantly higher stimulation index for PMA/I responses on Day 35, with a pattern demonstrating higher indices in the control group towards the end of the experiment. Lymphocyte proliferation assays using the (3H)-thymidine assay were performed with a variety of mitogens, including the pan-leukocyte stimulant, PMA/I. Stimulation indices were calculated by dividing the average counts per minute for cells stimulated with each mitogen, by the counts per minute for spontaneously proliferating cells. Average stimulation index was log-transformed and plotted against time for control (blue) and infected (white) horses. The error bars represent standard deviation about the mean. The blue star indicates a significant difference (P < 0.05). Day 0 = first day of experiment (Day 1 of infection).

Mentions: Enriched peripheral blood lymphocytes from S. neurona-infected horses cultured with PMA/I demonstrated a significantly lower stimulation index compared to controls on day 35 (Figures 4 and 5). No consistent differences were observed in proliferation response of S. neurona-infected cells to ConA (T-cell), PWM (B-cell), or antigen specific- (merozoites-) induced proliferation as detected by (3H)-thymidine incorporation, throughout the study (data not shown).


Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

Lewis SR, Ellison SP, Dascanio JJ, Lindsay DS, Gogal RM, Werre SR, Surendran N, Breen ME, Heid BM, Andrews FM, Buechner-Maxwell VA, Witonsky SG - J Vet Med (2014)

Differences in log-transformed stimulation indices for incubation with PMA/I between S. neurona experimentally infected and control horses. Control horses had a significantly higher stimulation index for PMA/I responses on Day 35, with a pattern demonstrating higher indices in the control group towards the end of the experiment. Lymphocyte proliferation assays using the (3H)-thymidine assay were performed with a variety of mitogens, including the pan-leukocyte stimulant, PMA/I. Stimulation indices were calculated by dividing the average counts per minute for cells stimulated with each mitogen, by the counts per minute for spontaneously proliferating cells. Average stimulation index was log-transformed and plotted against time for control (blue) and infected (white) horses. The error bars represent standard deviation about the mean. The blue star indicates a significant difference (P < 0.05). Day 0 = first day of experiment (Day 1 of infection).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590861&req=5

fig4: Differences in log-transformed stimulation indices for incubation with PMA/I between S. neurona experimentally infected and control horses. Control horses had a significantly higher stimulation index for PMA/I responses on Day 35, with a pattern demonstrating higher indices in the control group towards the end of the experiment. Lymphocyte proliferation assays using the (3H)-thymidine assay were performed with a variety of mitogens, including the pan-leukocyte stimulant, PMA/I. Stimulation indices were calculated by dividing the average counts per minute for cells stimulated with each mitogen, by the counts per minute for spontaneously proliferating cells. Average stimulation index was log-transformed and plotted against time for control (blue) and infected (white) horses. The error bars represent standard deviation about the mean. The blue star indicates a significant difference (P < 0.05). Day 0 = first day of experiment (Day 1 of infection).
Mentions: Enriched peripheral blood lymphocytes from S. neurona-infected horses cultured with PMA/I demonstrated a significantly lower stimulation index compared to controls on day 35 (Figures 4 and 5). No consistent differences were observed in proliferation response of S. neurona-infected cells to ConA (T-cell), PWM (B-cell), or antigen specific- (merozoites-) induced proliferation as detected by (3H)-thymidine incorporation, throughout the study (data not shown).

Bottom Line: Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators.Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression.Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA ; Rangiora Veterinary Centre, Rangiora 7400, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus