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S100β Levels in CSF of Nonambulatory Dogs with Intervertebral Disk Disease Treated with Electroacupuncture.

Murata Hayashi A, Fonseca Pinto AC, Cortopassi SR, Marvulle V, Ruivo Maximino J, Chadi G, Matera JM - J Vet Med (2013)

Bottom Line: M1-S100β levels were similar between subgroups A and B.However, M2-S100β levels were significantly higher in subgroup B than in subgroup A.S100β may be associated with neuroplasticity following spinal cord injuries with intervertebral disk extrusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, The University of São Paulo, 05508-270 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to investigate S100β levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of nonambulatory dogs with intervertebral disk disease treated with electroacupuncture: 10 dogs with thoracolumbar disk extrusion graded 3 to 5 (EA group) and 7 dogs without neurologic dysfunction (control group). All dogs regained ambulation. S100β was detected by Western blot analysis where EA group dogs were evaluated at two time points (M1 = before EA and M2 = when the dogs return ambulation) and at one time point from control group. In EA group dogs M1-S100β levels were significantly higher than in control group. EA group dogs were divided into subgroups A (n = 7-early motor recovery; 6.7 ± 7.8 days) and B (n = 3-late motor recovery; 76 ± 17.0 days). M1-S100β levels were similar between subgroups A and B. However, M2-S100β levels were significantly higher in subgroup B than in subgroup A. An elevated S100β levels were observed in dogs with late motor recovery. S100β may be associated with neuroplasticity following spinal cord injuries with intervertebral disk extrusion. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects and control group with affected dogs are necessary to investigate the relationship between neurotrophic factors and electroacupuncture stimulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Locations of acupuncture points: SI 3—lateral side of the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint, proximal to the head of the fifth metacarpal bone, BL20—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, BL23—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra, BL25—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the fifth lumbar vertebra, ST36—on the craniolateral aspect of the pelvic limb, three-sixteenths of the distance from the junction between the patella and patellar ligament to the cranial tarsus, about one digit breadth lateral to the tibial crest (lateral portion of the cranial tibial muscle), KI3—between the malleoli and the talus, BL60—opposite from KI3, BL62—in the depression distal to the lateral malleolus of the fibula, GB30—in the depression midway between the greater trochanter of the femur and the tuber ischii, GV1—in the depression between the anus and base of the tail, GV4—on the dorsal midline, between the dorsal spinous processes of the second and third lumbar vertebrae, GV5—on the dorsal midline, between the dorsal spinous processes of the thirteenth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae, and Lumbar Bai Hui—on the dorsal midline, in the depression at the lumbosacral junction.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Locations of acupuncture points: SI 3—lateral side of the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint, proximal to the head of the fifth metacarpal bone, BL20—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, BL23—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra, BL25—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the fifth lumbar vertebra, ST36—on the craniolateral aspect of the pelvic limb, three-sixteenths of the distance from the junction between the patella and patellar ligament to the cranial tarsus, about one digit breadth lateral to the tibial crest (lateral portion of the cranial tibial muscle), KI3—between the malleoli and the talus, BL60—opposite from KI3, BL62—in the depression distal to the lateral malleolus of the fibula, GB30—in the depression midway between the greater trochanter of the femur and the tuber ischii, GV1—in the depression between the anus and base of the tail, GV4—on the dorsal midline, between the dorsal spinous processes of the second and third lumbar vertebrae, GV5—on the dorsal midline, between the dorsal spinous processes of the thirteenth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae, and Lumbar Bai Hui—on the dorsal midline, in the depression at the lumbosacral junction.

Mentions: Percutaneous electroacupuncture was performed using an EA device (model DS 100 CB, Sikuro, Sikuro Sistemas e Equipamentos Elétricos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and acupuncture needles with the size of 0.25 × 25 mm (Cloud & Dragon, WuJiang City Cloud & Dragon Medical Device Co., Ltd., Jiangsu, China). Selection and location of the acupuncture points were based on the author's clinical experience [11] and the veterinary literature [13–15]. Different governing vessel (GV) points were used depending on location of the extrusion lesion. Acupuncture points (Figure 1) selected according to traditional Chinese medicine and related neuroanatomical structures [13, 14] were as follows: small intestine (SI) 3—fifth abaxial dorsal digital nerve; bladder (BL) 62, 20, and 23—caudal cutaneous sural nerve, dorsal cutaneous branch of the twelfth thoracic nerve, dorsal cutaneous branch of the second lumbar spinal nerve, respectively; stomach (ST) 36—branches from the saphenous nerve, and deeply to the point there is the peroneal nerve; kidney (KI) 3 (saphenous nerve) transfixed with BL60 (caudal cutaneous sural nerve); GV1 (ventral branches of the sacral and coccygeal nerves) and local GV points and lumbar Bai Hui (medial branch of the seventh lumbar nerve). In some dogs BL25, related to the dorsal cutaneous branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve, was added as local point; gallbladder (GB) 30, related to gluteus cranial nerve, lateral cutaneous femoral nerve, and cutaneous branches of the sacral nerves and deeply there is the sciatic nerve, was used only in dogs that did not allow access to GV1. All electroacupuncture treatments were performed by a small animal veterinarian certified in veterinary acupuncture (by International Veterinary Acupuncture Society, IVAS). Pairs of acupuncture points on the same side of the body were connected by an electrode to form a set, which was then subjected to alternating currents of 3 Hz and 100 Hz for 3 seconds each over a period of 20 minutes [11]. Voltage was increased until muscle twitching was observed. The sets of acupuncture points employed were BL20 or BL25 and BL23, lumbar Bai Hui and GV1 or GB30 (right side), and ST36 and KI3 transfixed to BL60 (both sides). Electroacupuncture stimulation was performed in all sets at the same time. The remaining points were stimulated by needle insertion only. All dogs received electroacupuncture treatments once per week for 3 weeks or until the dogs were able to walk without assistance and improvement of neurological deficits.


S100β Levels in CSF of Nonambulatory Dogs with Intervertebral Disk Disease Treated with Electroacupuncture.

Murata Hayashi A, Fonseca Pinto AC, Cortopassi SR, Marvulle V, Ruivo Maximino J, Chadi G, Matera JM - J Vet Med (2013)

Locations of acupuncture points: SI 3—lateral side of the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint, proximal to the head of the fifth metacarpal bone, BL20—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, BL23—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra, BL25—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the fifth lumbar vertebra, ST36—on the craniolateral aspect of the pelvic limb, three-sixteenths of the distance from the junction between the patella and patellar ligament to the cranial tarsus, about one digit breadth lateral to the tibial crest (lateral portion of the cranial tibial muscle), KI3—between the malleoli and the talus, BL60—opposite from KI3, BL62—in the depression distal to the lateral malleolus of the fibula, GB30—in the depression midway between the greater trochanter of the femur and the tuber ischii, GV1—in the depression between the anus and base of the tail, GV4—on the dorsal midline, between the dorsal spinous processes of the second and third lumbar vertebrae, GV5—on the dorsal midline, between the dorsal spinous processes of the thirteenth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae, and Lumbar Bai Hui—on the dorsal midline, in the depression at the lumbosacral junction.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
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fig1: Locations of acupuncture points: SI 3—lateral side of the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint, proximal to the head of the fifth metacarpal bone, BL20—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, BL23—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra, BL25—lateral to the caudal border of the spinous process of the fifth lumbar vertebra, ST36—on the craniolateral aspect of the pelvic limb, three-sixteenths of the distance from the junction between the patella and patellar ligament to the cranial tarsus, about one digit breadth lateral to the tibial crest (lateral portion of the cranial tibial muscle), KI3—between the malleoli and the talus, BL60—opposite from KI3, BL62—in the depression distal to the lateral malleolus of the fibula, GB30—in the depression midway between the greater trochanter of the femur and the tuber ischii, GV1—in the depression between the anus and base of the tail, GV4—on the dorsal midline, between the dorsal spinous processes of the second and third lumbar vertebrae, GV5—on the dorsal midline, between the dorsal spinous processes of the thirteenth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae, and Lumbar Bai Hui—on the dorsal midline, in the depression at the lumbosacral junction.
Mentions: Percutaneous electroacupuncture was performed using an EA device (model DS 100 CB, Sikuro, Sikuro Sistemas e Equipamentos Elétricos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and acupuncture needles with the size of 0.25 × 25 mm (Cloud & Dragon, WuJiang City Cloud & Dragon Medical Device Co., Ltd., Jiangsu, China). Selection and location of the acupuncture points were based on the author's clinical experience [11] and the veterinary literature [13–15]. Different governing vessel (GV) points were used depending on location of the extrusion lesion. Acupuncture points (Figure 1) selected according to traditional Chinese medicine and related neuroanatomical structures [13, 14] were as follows: small intestine (SI) 3—fifth abaxial dorsal digital nerve; bladder (BL) 62, 20, and 23—caudal cutaneous sural nerve, dorsal cutaneous branch of the twelfth thoracic nerve, dorsal cutaneous branch of the second lumbar spinal nerve, respectively; stomach (ST) 36—branches from the saphenous nerve, and deeply to the point there is the peroneal nerve; kidney (KI) 3 (saphenous nerve) transfixed with BL60 (caudal cutaneous sural nerve); GV1 (ventral branches of the sacral and coccygeal nerves) and local GV points and lumbar Bai Hui (medial branch of the seventh lumbar nerve). In some dogs BL25, related to the dorsal cutaneous branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve, was added as local point; gallbladder (GB) 30, related to gluteus cranial nerve, lateral cutaneous femoral nerve, and cutaneous branches of the sacral nerves and deeply there is the sciatic nerve, was used only in dogs that did not allow access to GV1. All electroacupuncture treatments were performed by a small animal veterinarian certified in veterinary acupuncture (by International Veterinary Acupuncture Society, IVAS). Pairs of acupuncture points on the same side of the body were connected by an electrode to form a set, which was then subjected to alternating currents of 3 Hz and 100 Hz for 3 seconds each over a period of 20 minutes [11]. Voltage was increased until muscle twitching was observed. The sets of acupuncture points employed were BL20 or BL25 and BL23, lumbar Bai Hui and GV1 or GB30 (right side), and ST36 and KI3 transfixed to BL60 (both sides). Electroacupuncture stimulation was performed in all sets at the same time. The remaining points were stimulated by needle insertion only. All dogs received electroacupuncture treatments once per week for 3 weeks or until the dogs were able to walk without assistance and improvement of neurological deficits.

Bottom Line: M1-S100β levels were similar between subgroups A and B.However, M2-S100β levels were significantly higher in subgroup B than in subgroup A.S100β may be associated with neuroplasticity following spinal cord injuries with intervertebral disk extrusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, The University of São Paulo, 05508-270 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to investigate S100β levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of nonambulatory dogs with intervertebral disk disease treated with electroacupuncture: 10 dogs with thoracolumbar disk extrusion graded 3 to 5 (EA group) and 7 dogs without neurologic dysfunction (control group). All dogs regained ambulation. S100β was detected by Western blot analysis where EA group dogs were evaluated at two time points (M1 = before EA and M2 = when the dogs return ambulation) and at one time point from control group. In EA group dogs M1-S100β levels were significantly higher than in control group. EA group dogs were divided into subgroups A (n = 7-early motor recovery; 6.7 ± 7.8 days) and B (n = 3-late motor recovery; 76 ± 17.0 days). M1-S100β levels were similar between subgroups A and B. However, M2-S100β levels were significantly higher in subgroup B than in subgroup A. An elevated S100β levels were observed in dogs with late motor recovery. S100β may be associated with neuroplasticity following spinal cord injuries with intervertebral disk extrusion. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects and control group with affected dogs are necessary to investigate the relationship between neurotrophic factors and electroacupuncture stimulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus