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Macrophages and Alcohol-Related Liver Inflammation.

Ju C, Mandrekar P - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Other analyses have focused on the contributions of resident versus infiltrating macrophages/monocytes, as well as on the roles of macrophage mediators, in the development of ALD.Findings point to the potential of macrophages as a therapeutic target in alcoholic liver injury.Future studies directed toward understanding how alcohol affects macrophage phenotypic switch in the liver and other tissues, whether the liver microenvironment determines macrophage function in ALO and if targeting of macrophages alleviates alcoholic liver injury, will provide promising strategies to manage patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Recent studies have suggested that macrophages have a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced inflammation in the liver. To define the precise pathogenic function of these cells during alcoholic liver disease (ALD), it is extremely important to conduct extensive studies in clinical settings that further elucidate the phenotypic diversity of macrophages In the context of ALD. Research to date already has identified several characteristics of macrophages that underlie the cells' actions, including macrophage polarization and their phenotypic diversity. Other analyses have focused on the contributions of resident versus infiltrating macrophages/monocytes, as well as on the roles of macrophage mediators, in the development of ALD. Findings point to the potential of macrophages as a therapeutic target in alcoholic liver injury. Future studies directed toward understanding how alcohol affects macrophage phenotypic switch in the liver and other tissues, whether the liver microenvironment determines macrophage function in ALO and if targeting of macrophages alleviates alcoholic liver injury, will provide promising strategies to manage patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Macrophage functions in alcoholic liver disease. Macrophages fulfill a variety of functions in the context of alcoholic liver disease, including both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions, depending on the state of the disease. These activities include the production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-1, -12, and -23; tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]) and chemokines, as well as of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10, IL-1 receptor a [IL-1Ra], and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]). Other relevant activities include presentation of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts and microbicidal and phagocytotic activity, as well as tissue repair and regeneration through the production of growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).
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f2-arcr-37-2-251: Macrophage functions in alcoholic liver disease. Macrophages fulfill a variety of functions in the context of alcoholic liver disease, including both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions, depending on the state of the disease. These activities include the production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-1, -12, and -23; tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]) and chemokines, as well as of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10, IL-1 receptor a [IL-1Ra], and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]). Other relevant activities include presentation of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts and microbicidal and phagocytotic activity, as well as tissue repair and regeneration through the production of growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).

Mentions: The heterogeneous populations of both resident and infiltrating macrophages present in the liver have multiple functions that are relevant to ALD (see figure 2):


Macrophages and Alcohol-Related Liver Inflammation.

Ju C, Mandrekar P - Alcohol Res (2015)

Macrophage functions in alcoholic liver disease. Macrophages fulfill a variety of functions in the context of alcoholic liver disease, including both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions, depending on the state of the disease. These activities include the production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-1, -12, and -23; tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]) and chemokines, as well as of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10, IL-1 receptor a [IL-1Ra], and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]). Other relevant activities include presentation of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts and microbicidal and phagocytotic activity, as well as tissue repair and regeneration through the production of growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590621&req=5

f2-arcr-37-2-251: Macrophage functions in alcoholic liver disease. Macrophages fulfill a variety of functions in the context of alcoholic liver disease, including both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions, depending on the state of the disease. These activities include the production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-1, -12, and -23; tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]) and chemokines, as well as of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10, IL-1 receptor a [IL-1Ra], and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]). Other relevant activities include presentation of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts and microbicidal and phagocytotic activity, as well as tissue repair and regeneration through the production of growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).
Mentions: The heterogeneous populations of both resident and infiltrating macrophages present in the liver have multiple functions that are relevant to ALD (see figure 2):

Bottom Line: Other analyses have focused on the contributions of resident versus infiltrating macrophages/monocytes, as well as on the roles of macrophage mediators, in the development of ALD.Findings point to the potential of macrophages as a therapeutic target in alcoholic liver injury.Future studies directed toward understanding how alcohol affects macrophage phenotypic switch in the liver and other tissues, whether the liver microenvironment determines macrophage function in ALO and if targeting of macrophages alleviates alcoholic liver injury, will provide promising strategies to manage patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Recent studies have suggested that macrophages have a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced inflammation in the liver. To define the precise pathogenic function of these cells during alcoholic liver disease (ALD), it is extremely important to conduct extensive studies in clinical settings that further elucidate the phenotypic diversity of macrophages In the context of ALD. Research to date already has identified several characteristics of macrophages that underlie the cells' actions, including macrophage polarization and their phenotypic diversity. Other analyses have focused on the contributions of resident versus infiltrating macrophages/monocytes, as well as on the roles of macrophage mediators, in the development of ALD. Findings point to the potential of macrophages as a therapeutic target in alcoholic liver injury. Future studies directed toward understanding how alcohol affects macrophage phenotypic switch in the liver and other tissues, whether the liver microenvironment determines macrophage function in ALO and if targeting of macrophages alleviates alcoholic liver injury, will provide promising strategies to manage patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus