Limits...
Impact of Alcohol Abuse on the Adaptive Immune System.

Pasala S, Barr T, Messaoudi I - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Alcohol's impact on T cells and B cells increases the risk of infections (e.g., pneumonia, HIV infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and tuberculosis), impairs responses to vaccinations against such infections, exacerbates cancer risk, and interferes with delayed-type hypersensitivity.In contrast to these deleterious effects of heavy alcohol exposure, moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on the adaptive immune system, including improved responses to vaccination and infection.The molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol's impact on the adaptive immune system remain poorly understood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California.

ABSTRACT
Alcohol exposure, and particularly chronic heavy drinking, affects all components of the adaptive immune system. Studies both in humans and in animal models determined that chronic alcohol abuse reduces the number of peripheral T cells, disrupts the balance between different T-cell types, influences T-cell activation, impairs T-cell functioning, and promotes T-cell apoptosis. Chronic alcohol exposure also seems to cause loss of peripheral B cells, while simultaneously inducing increased production of immunoglobulins. In particular, the levels of antibodies against liver-specific autoantigens are increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease and may promote alcohol-related liver damage. Finally, chronic alcohol exposure in utero interferes with normal T-cell and B-cell development, which may increase the risk of infections during both childhood and adulthood. Alcohol's impact on T cells and B cells increases the risk of infections (e.g., pneumonia, HIV infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and tuberculosis), impairs responses to vaccinations against such infections, exacerbates cancer risk, and interferes with delayed-type hypersensitivity. In contrast to these deleterious effects of heavy alcohol exposure, moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on the adaptive immune system, including improved responses to vaccination and infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol's impact on the adaptive immune system remain poorly understood.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Alcohol abuse affects both the number and function of T cells. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases the number of circulating T cells, increases the number of activated T cells, accelerates differentiation of T cells to a memory phenotype, and interferes with thymocyte development.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590616&req=5

f1-arcr-37-2-185: Alcohol abuse affects both the number and function of T cells. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases the number of circulating T cells, increases the number of activated T cells, accelerates differentiation of T cells to a memory phenotype, and interferes with thymocyte development.

Mentions: In summary, these studies suggest that chronic alcohol abuse in humans and animal models results in lymphopenia, increased T-cell differentiation and activation, and reduced migration (see figure 1). Chronic activation of the T-cell pool may alter the T cells’ ability to expand and respond to pathogenic challenges (potentially by inducing a state of unresponsiveness, or anergy, of the T cells), place the T cells under increased regulatory control, or lead to their elimination through increased sensitivity to AICD. These changes in turn compromise the organism’s ability to respond to pathogens and contribute to increased susceptibility to infections.


Impact of Alcohol Abuse on the Adaptive Immune System.

Pasala S, Barr T, Messaoudi I - Alcohol Res (2015)

Alcohol abuse affects both the number and function of T cells. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases the number of circulating T cells, increases the number of activated T cells, accelerates differentiation of T cells to a memory phenotype, and interferes with thymocyte development.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590616&req=5

f1-arcr-37-2-185: Alcohol abuse affects both the number and function of T cells. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases the number of circulating T cells, increases the number of activated T cells, accelerates differentiation of T cells to a memory phenotype, and interferes with thymocyte development.
Mentions: In summary, these studies suggest that chronic alcohol abuse in humans and animal models results in lymphopenia, increased T-cell differentiation and activation, and reduced migration (see figure 1). Chronic activation of the T-cell pool may alter the T cells’ ability to expand and respond to pathogenic challenges (potentially by inducing a state of unresponsiveness, or anergy, of the T cells), place the T cells under increased regulatory control, or lead to their elimination through increased sensitivity to AICD. These changes in turn compromise the organism’s ability to respond to pathogens and contribute to increased susceptibility to infections.

Bottom Line: Alcohol's impact on T cells and B cells increases the risk of infections (e.g., pneumonia, HIV infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and tuberculosis), impairs responses to vaccinations against such infections, exacerbates cancer risk, and interferes with delayed-type hypersensitivity.In contrast to these deleterious effects of heavy alcohol exposure, moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on the adaptive immune system, including improved responses to vaccination and infection.The molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol's impact on the adaptive immune system remain poorly understood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California.

ABSTRACT
Alcohol exposure, and particularly chronic heavy drinking, affects all components of the adaptive immune system. Studies both in humans and in animal models determined that chronic alcohol abuse reduces the number of peripheral T cells, disrupts the balance between different T-cell types, influences T-cell activation, impairs T-cell functioning, and promotes T-cell apoptosis. Chronic alcohol exposure also seems to cause loss of peripheral B cells, while simultaneously inducing increased production of immunoglobulins. In particular, the levels of antibodies against liver-specific autoantigens are increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease and may promote alcohol-related liver damage. Finally, chronic alcohol exposure in utero interferes with normal T-cell and B-cell development, which may increase the risk of infections during both childhood and adulthood. Alcohol's impact on T cells and B cells increases the risk of infections (e.g., pneumonia, HIV infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and tuberculosis), impairs responses to vaccinations against such infections, exacerbates cancer risk, and interferes with delayed-type hypersensitivity. In contrast to these deleterious effects of heavy alcohol exposure, moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on the adaptive immune system, including improved responses to vaccination and infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol's impact on the adaptive immune system remain poorly understood.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus