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Primer on the Immune System.

Spiering MJ - Alcohol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Digestive enzymes destroy microbes that enter the stomach with food.These immune cells sense and devour microbes, damaged cells, and other foreign materials in the body.Certain proteins in the blood (such as proteins of the complement system and those released by natural killer cells, along with antimicrobial host-defense peptides) attach to foreign organisms and toxins to initiate their destruction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSR, Incorporated, Arlington, Virginia.

ABSTRACT
The human body regularly encounters and combats many pathogenic organisms and toxic molecules. Its ensuing responses to these disease-causing agents involve two interrelated systems: innate immunity and adaptive (or acquired) immunity. Innate immunity is active at several levels, both at potential points of entry and inside the body (see figure). For example, the skin represents a physical barrier preventing pathogens from invading internal tissues. Digestive enzymes destroy microbes that enter the stomach with food. Macrophages and lymphocytes, equipped with molecular detectors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which latch onto foreign structures and activate cellular defenses, patrol the inside of the body. These immune cells sense and devour microbes, damaged cells, and other foreign materials in the body. Certain proteins in the blood (such as proteins of the complement system and those released by natural killer cells, along with antimicrobial host-defense peptides) attach to foreign organisms and toxins to initiate their destruction.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Overview of the immune system. Innate immunity encompasses several non-specific protective mechanisms against infection, including physical and physiological barriers, cells (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) that detect and attack other cells carrying pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and small proteins that signal pathogen invasion (i.e., cytokines and chemokines) or short peptides that directly attach to and restrict microbial pathogens. The adaptive immune system comprises specialized cells (e.g., B and T cells) and proteins (i.e., antibodies) that detect and eliminate specific pathogens and also uses cytokine/chemokine signaling to recruit additional immune cells. Several cells in adaptive immunity (i.e., memory B and T cells) can store immune memory of a pathogenic invasion. The complement system, along with natural killer cells and dendritic cells, straddles both innate and adaptive immunity.
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f1-arcr-37-2-171: Overview of the immune system. Innate immunity encompasses several non-specific protective mechanisms against infection, including physical and physiological barriers, cells (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) that detect and attack other cells carrying pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and small proteins that signal pathogen invasion (i.e., cytokines and chemokines) or short peptides that directly attach to and restrict microbial pathogens. The adaptive immune system comprises specialized cells (e.g., B and T cells) and proteins (i.e., antibodies) that detect and eliminate specific pathogens and also uses cytokine/chemokine signaling to recruit additional immune cells. Several cells in adaptive immunity (i.e., memory B and T cells) can store immune memory of a pathogenic invasion. The complement system, along with natural killer cells and dendritic cells, straddles both innate and adaptive immunity.

Mentions: The human body regularly encounters and combats many pathogenic organisms and toxic molecules. Its ensuing responses to these disease-causing agents involve two interrelated systems: innate immunity and adaptive (or acquired) immunity. Innate immunity is active at several levels, both at potential points of entry and inside the body (see figure). For example, the skin represents a physical barrier preventing pathogens from invading internal tissues. Digestive enzymes destroy microbes that enter the stomach with food. Macrophages and lymphocytes, equipped with molecular detectors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which latch onto foreign structures and activate cellular defenses, patrol the inside of the body. These immune cells sense and devour microbes, damaged cells, and other foreign materials in the body. Certain proteins in the blood (such as proteins of the complement system and those released by natural killer cells, along with antimicrobial host-defense peptides) attach to foreign organisms and toxins to initiate their destruction.


Primer on the Immune System.

Spiering MJ - Alcohol Res (2015)

Overview of the immune system. Innate immunity encompasses several non-specific protective mechanisms against infection, including physical and physiological barriers, cells (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) that detect and attack other cells carrying pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and small proteins that signal pathogen invasion (i.e., cytokines and chemokines) or short peptides that directly attach to and restrict microbial pathogens. The adaptive immune system comprises specialized cells (e.g., B and T cells) and proteins (i.e., antibodies) that detect and eliminate specific pathogens and also uses cytokine/chemokine signaling to recruit additional immune cells. Several cells in adaptive immunity (i.e., memory B and T cells) can store immune memory of a pathogenic invasion. The complement system, along with natural killer cells and dendritic cells, straddles both innate and adaptive immunity.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590614&req=5

f1-arcr-37-2-171: Overview of the immune system. Innate immunity encompasses several non-specific protective mechanisms against infection, including physical and physiological barriers, cells (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) that detect and attack other cells carrying pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and small proteins that signal pathogen invasion (i.e., cytokines and chemokines) or short peptides that directly attach to and restrict microbial pathogens. The adaptive immune system comprises specialized cells (e.g., B and T cells) and proteins (i.e., antibodies) that detect and eliminate specific pathogens and also uses cytokine/chemokine signaling to recruit additional immune cells. Several cells in adaptive immunity (i.e., memory B and T cells) can store immune memory of a pathogenic invasion. The complement system, along with natural killer cells and dendritic cells, straddles both innate and adaptive immunity.
Mentions: The human body regularly encounters and combats many pathogenic organisms and toxic molecules. Its ensuing responses to these disease-causing agents involve two interrelated systems: innate immunity and adaptive (or acquired) immunity. Innate immunity is active at several levels, both at potential points of entry and inside the body (see figure). For example, the skin represents a physical barrier preventing pathogens from invading internal tissues. Digestive enzymes destroy microbes that enter the stomach with food. Macrophages and lymphocytes, equipped with molecular detectors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which latch onto foreign structures and activate cellular defenses, patrol the inside of the body. These immune cells sense and devour microbes, damaged cells, and other foreign materials in the body. Certain proteins in the blood (such as proteins of the complement system and those released by natural killer cells, along with antimicrobial host-defense peptides) attach to foreign organisms and toxins to initiate their destruction.

Bottom Line: Digestive enzymes destroy microbes that enter the stomach with food.These immune cells sense and devour microbes, damaged cells, and other foreign materials in the body.Certain proteins in the blood (such as proteins of the complement system and those released by natural killer cells, along with antimicrobial host-defense peptides) attach to foreign organisms and toxins to initiate their destruction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSR, Incorporated, Arlington, Virginia.

ABSTRACT
The human body regularly encounters and combats many pathogenic organisms and toxic molecules. Its ensuing responses to these disease-causing agents involve two interrelated systems: innate immunity and adaptive (or acquired) immunity. Innate immunity is active at several levels, both at potential points of entry and inside the body (see figure). For example, the skin represents a physical barrier preventing pathogens from invading internal tissues. Digestive enzymes destroy microbes that enter the stomach with food. Macrophages and lymphocytes, equipped with molecular detectors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which latch onto foreign structures and activate cellular defenses, patrol the inside of the body. These immune cells sense and devour microbes, damaged cells, and other foreign materials in the body. Certain proteins in the blood (such as proteins of the complement system and those released by natural killer cells, along with antimicrobial host-defense peptides) attach to foreign organisms and toxins to initiate their destruction.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus