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Helical computed tomography scanning of the larynx and upper trachea in rabbits.

Ajlan AM, Al-Khatib T, Al-Sheikah M, Jastaniah S, Salih A, Althubaiti A, Aljohani A, Marzouki H, Alherabi A, Marglani O, Rabah S, Karrouf G - Acta Vet. Scand. (2015)

Bottom Line: We also addressed the presence or absence of pre-epiglottic and paraglottic fat.The remaining airway components were otherwise either uncalcified or partially calcified.Such results may be used in further evaluation of the normal airway and in cases of subglottic stenosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radiology Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Western Region, Saudi Arabia. amrajlan@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Computed tomography (CT) is used to evaluate the human tracheobronchial tree because of its unsurpassed ability to visualize the airway and surrounding structures. To establish an ideal animal model for studying subglottic stenosis, we assessed the size and morphology of the normal rabbit's laryngotracheal airway by helical CT. We measured luminal dimensions at the levels of the arytenoid and cricoid cartilages and the first, third, and eighth tracheal rings. At all levels, the axial slices were used to calculate the maximum anteroposterior (AP) dimension, transverse dimension, and cross-sectional areas. We measured the tracheal length from the cricoid to the third and eighth tracheal rings on sagittal reformation. We assessed the hyoid, thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, and tracheal rings for the presence of calcific or soft tissue densities. We also addressed the presence or absence of pre-epiglottic and paraglottic fat.

Results: The mean AP tracheal dimension ± standard deviation (SD) was 8.6 ± 0.5 mm at the arytenoid level, 8.2 ± 0.7 mm at the cricoid level, and 7.7 ± 0.2 mm at the first tracheal ring level. The transverse tracheal dimension ±SD was 5.3 ± 0.1 mm at the arytenoid level, 5.5 ± 0.5 mm at the cricoid level, and 6.1 ± 0.6 mm at the first tracheal ring level. The mean tracheal area ±SD was 35.7 ± 2.2 mm(2) at the arytenoid level, 35.8 ± 5.1 mm(2) at the cricoid level, and 39.2 ± 4.3 mm(2) at the first tracheal ring level. The tracheal length ±SD was 10.7 ± 2.3 mm from the cricoid to the third tracheal ring and 19.1 ± 1.14 mm to the eighth tracheal ring. There was complete calcification of the hyoid in all rabbits. Only two rabbits showed complete thyroid, arytenoid, or tracheal ring calcification. The remaining airway components were otherwise either uncalcified or partially calcified. The uvula, epiglottis, aryepiglottic fold, vallecula, piriform sinus, true/false vocal cords, and pre-epiglottic/paraglottic fat were not seen in any rabbit.

Conclusions: Helical CT investigation provides good, highly definitive anatomic details of the larynx and trachea in rabbits. Such results may be used in further evaluation of the normal airway and in cases of subglottic stenosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative images of various computed tomographic morphological appearances of the rabbit’s laryngeal components. a Diffusely and densely calcified hyoid cartilage (arrow). b Diffusely and densely calcified thyroid cartilage (arrow). c Partial and faint thyroid cartilage calcification (arrow). d Densely calcified arytenoid cartilage (arrows)
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Fig3: Representative images of various computed tomographic morphological appearances of the rabbit’s laryngeal components. a Diffusely and densely calcified hyoid cartilage (arrow). b Diffusely and densely calcified thyroid cartilage (arrow). c Partial and faint thyroid cartilage calcification (arrow). d Densely calcified arytenoid cartilage (arrows)

Mentions: The morphological features of each rabbit are summarized in Table 2. The thyroid cartilage was located at the level of the first cervical vertebral body in all rabbits. The lumen of the larynx at the hyoid level was diamond-shaped in all but one rabbit, which had an oval-shaped lumen. The lumen appeared nearly rounded in all rabbits at the mid-tracheal level. The hyoid cartilage was completely and densely calcified in all rabbits (Fig. 3a), and the articulation between the hyoid body and horns was readily distinguishable. The thyroid cartilage was completely and densely calcified in two rabbits (Fig. 3b) and had faint partial calcifications in the other two (Fig. 3c). Two rabbits had dense arytenoid calcifications (Fig. 3d), while the other two had arytenoids of soft tissue density. The cricoid cartilage calcifications were complete in two rabbits and partial in the other two. All tracheal rings were completely calcified in two rabbits, partially calcified in one rabbit, and of soft tissue density in one rabbit (Table 2).Table 2


Helical computed tomography scanning of the larynx and upper trachea in rabbits.

Ajlan AM, Al-Khatib T, Al-Sheikah M, Jastaniah S, Salih A, Althubaiti A, Aljohani A, Marzouki H, Alherabi A, Marglani O, Rabah S, Karrouf G - Acta Vet. Scand. (2015)

Representative images of various computed tomographic morphological appearances of the rabbit’s laryngeal components. a Diffusely and densely calcified hyoid cartilage (arrow). b Diffusely and densely calcified thyroid cartilage (arrow). c Partial and faint thyroid cartilage calcification (arrow). d Densely calcified arytenoid cartilage (arrows)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590308&req=5

Fig3: Representative images of various computed tomographic morphological appearances of the rabbit’s laryngeal components. a Diffusely and densely calcified hyoid cartilage (arrow). b Diffusely and densely calcified thyroid cartilage (arrow). c Partial and faint thyroid cartilage calcification (arrow). d Densely calcified arytenoid cartilage (arrows)
Mentions: The morphological features of each rabbit are summarized in Table 2. The thyroid cartilage was located at the level of the first cervical vertebral body in all rabbits. The lumen of the larynx at the hyoid level was diamond-shaped in all but one rabbit, which had an oval-shaped lumen. The lumen appeared nearly rounded in all rabbits at the mid-tracheal level. The hyoid cartilage was completely and densely calcified in all rabbits (Fig. 3a), and the articulation between the hyoid body and horns was readily distinguishable. The thyroid cartilage was completely and densely calcified in two rabbits (Fig. 3b) and had faint partial calcifications in the other two (Fig. 3c). Two rabbits had dense arytenoid calcifications (Fig. 3d), while the other two had arytenoids of soft tissue density. The cricoid cartilage calcifications were complete in two rabbits and partial in the other two. All tracheal rings were completely calcified in two rabbits, partially calcified in one rabbit, and of soft tissue density in one rabbit (Table 2).Table 2

Bottom Line: We also addressed the presence or absence of pre-epiglottic and paraglottic fat.The remaining airway components were otherwise either uncalcified or partially calcified.Such results may be used in further evaluation of the normal airway and in cases of subglottic stenosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radiology Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Western Region, Saudi Arabia. amrajlan@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Computed tomography (CT) is used to evaluate the human tracheobronchial tree because of its unsurpassed ability to visualize the airway and surrounding structures. To establish an ideal animal model for studying subglottic stenosis, we assessed the size and morphology of the normal rabbit's laryngotracheal airway by helical CT. We measured luminal dimensions at the levels of the arytenoid and cricoid cartilages and the first, third, and eighth tracheal rings. At all levels, the axial slices were used to calculate the maximum anteroposterior (AP) dimension, transverse dimension, and cross-sectional areas. We measured the tracheal length from the cricoid to the third and eighth tracheal rings on sagittal reformation. We assessed the hyoid, thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, and tracheal rings for the presence of calcific or soft tissue densities. We also addressed the presence or absence of pre-epiglottic and paraglottic fat.

Results: The mean AP tracheal dimension ± standard deviation (SD) was 8.6 ± 0.5 mm at the arytenoid level, 8.2 ± 0.7 mm at the cricoid level, and 7.7 ± 0.2 mm at the first tracheal ring level. The transverse tracheal dimension ±SD was 5.3 ± 0.1 mm at the arytenoid level, 5.5 ± 0.5 mm at the cricoid level, and 6.1 ± 0.6 mm at the first tracheal ring level. The mean tracheal area ±SD was 35.7 ± 2.2 mm(2) at the arytenoid level, 35.8 ± 5.1 mm(2) at the cricoid level, and 39.2 ± 4.3 mm(2) at the first tracheal ring level. The tracheal length ±SD was 10.7 ± 2.3 mm from the cricoid to the third tracheal ring and 19.1 ± 1.14 mm to the eighth tracheal ring. There was complete calcification of the hyoid in all rabbits. Only two rabbits showed complete thyroid, arytenoid, or tracheal ring calcification. The remaining airway components were otherwise either uncalcified or partially calcified. The uvula, epiglottis, aryepiglottic fold, vallecula, piriform sinus, true/false vocal cords, and pre-epiglottic/paraglottic fat were not seen in any rabbit.

Conclusions: Helical CT investigation provides good, highly definitive anatomic details of the larynx and trachea in rabbits. Such results may be used in further evaluation of the normal airway and in cases of subglottic stenosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus