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Evaluation of percutaneous permeation of repellent DEET and sunscreen oxybenzone from emulsion-based formulations in artificial membrane and human skin.

Wang T, Miller D, Burczynski F, Gu X - Acta Pharm Sin B (2014)

Bottom Line: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of emulsion type, addition of thickening agent and droplet size in three emulsion-based lotions on percutaneous permeation of DEET and oxybenzone using in vitro diffusion experiments, in order to minimize overall systemic permeation of the substances.Formulation B (oil-in-water emulsion with thickening agent xanthan gum) significantly decreased the size of oil droplet containing DEET (16%), but no effect on oil droplets containing oxybenzone.Adding xanthan gum also increased overall permeation of DEET and oxybenzone (21% and 150%) when compared to Formulation A; presence of both ingredients in Formulation B further increased their permeation (36% and 23%) in comparison to its single counterparts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0T5, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Insect repellent DEET and sunscreen ingredient oxybenzone play an essential role in minimizing vector-borne diseases and skin cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of emulsion type, addition of thickening agent and droplet size in three emulsion-based lotions on percutaneous permeation of DEET and oxybenzone using in vitro diffusion experiments, in order to minimize overall systemic permeation of the substances. Formulation C (water-in-oil emulsion) significantly increased overall permeation of DEET through human skin (56%) compared to Formulation A (oil-in-water emulsion). Formulation B (oil-in-water emulsion with thickening agent xanthan gum) significantly decreased the size of oil droplet containing DEET (16%), but no effect on oil droplets containing oxybenzone. Adding xanthan gum also increased overall permeation of DEET and oxybenzone (21% and 150%) when compared to Formulation A; presence of both ingredients in Formulation B further increased their permeation (36% and 23%) in comparison to its single counterparts. Overall permeation of oxybenzone through LDPE was significantly higher by 26%-628% than that through human skin; overall permeation of DEET through human skin was significantly higher by 64%-338% than that through LDPE.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The appearance of droplets in FA, FB, FC. The photomicrographs of three emulsion-based formulations with DEET and/or OBZ (a: FA with DEET and OBZ; b: FA with OBZ; c: FA with DEET; d: FB with DEET and OBZ; e: FB with OBZ; f: FB with DEET; g: FC with DEET and OBZ; h: FC with OBZ; i: FC with DEET; j: Scale) were obtained using an optical microscopy and a digital camera. All the preparations are simple emulsions (oil-in-water or water-in-oil).
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f0005: The appearance of droplets in FA, FB, FC. The photomicrographs of three emulsion-based formulations with DEET and/or OBZ (a: FA with DEET and OBZ; b: FA with OBZ; c: FA with DEET; d: FB with DEET and OBZ; e: FB with OBZ; f: FB with DEET; g: FC with DEET and OBZ; h: FC with OBZ; i: FC with DEET; j: Scale) were obtained using an optical microscopy and a digital camera. All the preparations are simple emulsions (oil-in-water or water-in-oil).

Mentions: The surface morphology of emulsion droplets was observed using an optical microscopy; pictures were taken using a digital camera. As shown in photomicrographs (Fig. 1), all three emulsion formulations were simple emulsions. Oil globules dispersed throughout continuous aqueous phase in FA and FB, while aqueous globules dispersed throughout continuous oil phase in FC. The oil and aqueous globules were found to be spherical with smooth surface. In FA containing DEET or OBZ, the oil globules appeared to be uniformly distributed within the continuous phase. Aggregation of oil globules was observed in FA containing combined DEET/OBZ, which may have resulted in larger droplet size. FB containing DEET or OBZ also showed uniform distribution of oil globules within continuous phase, while FB containing combined DEET/OBZ exhibited aggregation of the oil droplets. In FC, all preparations produced uniform distribution of aqueous globules in continuous oil phase without evidence of globule aggregation.


Evaluation of percutaneous permeation of repellent DEET and sunscreen oxybenzone from emulsion-based formulations in artificial membrane and human skin.

Wang T, Miller D, Burczynski F, Gu X - Acta Pharm Sin B (2014)

The appearance of droplets in FA, FB, FC. The photomicrographs of three emulsion-based formulations with DEET and/or OBZ (a: FA with DEET and OBZ; b: FA with OBZ; c: FA with DEET; d: FB with DEET and OBZ; e: FB with OBZ; f: FB with DEET; g: FC with DEET and OBZ; h: FC with OBZ; i: FC with DEET; j: Scale) were obtained using an optical microscopy and a digital camera. All the preparations are simple emulsions (oil-in-water or water-in-oil).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4590294&req=5

f0005: The appearance of droplets in FA, FB, FC. The photomicrographs of three emulsion-based formulations with DEET and/or OBZ (a: FA with DEET and OBZ; b: FA with OBZ; c: FA with DEET; d: FB with DEET and OBZ; e: FB with OBZ; f: FB with DEET; g: FC with DEET and OBZ; h: FC with OBZ; i: FC with DEET; j: Scale) were obtained using an optical microscopy and a digital camera. All the preparations are simple emulsions (oil-in-water or water-in-oil).
Mentions: The surface morphology of emulsion droplets was observed using an optical microscopy; pictures were taken using a digital camera. As shown in photomicrographs (Fig. 1), all three emulsion formulations were simple emulsions. Oil globules dispersed throughout continuous aqueous phase in FA and FB, while aqueous globules dispersed throughout continuous oil phase in FC. The oil and aqueous globules were found to be spherical with smooth surface. In FA containing DEET or OBZ, the oil globules appeared to be uniformly distributed within the continuous phase. Aggregation of oil globules was observed in FA containing combined DEET/OBZ, which may have resulted in larger droplet size. FB containing DEET or OBZ also showed uniform distribution of oil globules within continuous phase, while FB containing combined DEET/OBZ exhibited aggregation of the oil droplets. In FC, all preparations produced uniform distribution of aqueous globules in continuous oil phase without evidence of globule aggregation.

Bottom Line: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of emulsion type, addition of thickening agent and droplet size in three emulsion-based lotions on percutaneous permeation of DEET and oxybenzone using in vitro diffusion experiments, in order to minimize overall systemic permeation of the substances.Formulation B (oil-in-water emulsion with thickening agent xanthan gum) significantly decreased the size of oil droplet containing DEET (16%), but no effect on oil droplets containing oxybenzone.Adding xanthan gum also increased overall permeation of DEET and oxybenzone (21% and 150%) when compared to Formulation A; presence of both ingredients in Formulation B further increased their permeation (36% and 23%) in comparison to its single counterparts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0T5, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Insect repellent DEET and sunscreen ingredient oxybenzone play an essential role in minimizing vector-borne diseases and skin cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of emulsion type, addition of thickening agent and droplet size in three emulsion-based lotions on percutaneous permeation of DEET and oxybenzone using in vitro diffusion experiments, in order to minimize overall systemic permeation of the substances. Formulation C (water-in-oil emulsion) significantly increased overall permeation of DEET through human skin (56%) compared to Formulation A (oil-in-water emulsion). Formulation B (oil-in-water emulsion with thickening agent xanthan gum) significantly decreased the size of oil droplet containing DEET (16%), but no effect on oil droplets containing oxybenzone. Adding xanthan gum also increased overall permeation of DEET and oxybenzone (21% and 150%) when compared to Formulation A; presence of both ingredients in Formulation B further increased their permeation (36% and 23%) in comparison to its single counterparts. Overall permeation of oxybenzone through LDPE was significantly higher by 26%-628% than that through human skin; overall permeation of DEET through human skin was significantly higher by 64%-338% than that through LDPE.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus