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Distribution pattern of axonal cytoskeleton proteins in the human optic nerve head.

Kang MH, Yu DY - Neural Regen Res (2015)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia; Lions Eye Institute, 2 Verdun Street, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

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It is a progressive optic neuropathy where structural loss of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons corresponds with functional visual field defect... Glaucoma is distinguished from other optic neuropathies by its selective loss of RGC axons... Superior and inferior peripheral nerve sectors are found to be most vulnerable to pressure induced injury whereas the inner temporal sector is most resilient (Quigley et al., 1988)... At any one time, approximately 80% of NFH and NFM proteins are phosphorylated (Petzold, 2005)... Previous reports have documented that axons of larger RGCs are found to be more vulnerable to glaucomatous axonal injury which are concentrated in the peripheral optic nerve head (Quigley et el., 1982)... Another finding of this study is that all axonal cytoskeleton proteins are evenly distributed across different sectors in the retrolaminar region of the optic nerve head... The intensity of all axonal cytoskeleton proteins in the retrolaminar region was significantly lower when compared to prelaminar, anterior laminar cribrosa and posterior laminar cribrosa regions... RGC axons are unmyelinated in the anterior portion of the optic nerve head (specifically, prelaminar, anterior laminar and posterior lamina cribrosa regions) and becomes myelinated from the retrolaminar region... The presence of myelin may also explain the relatively uniform distribution of cytoskeleton protein within the retrolaminar region... Lastly, we did not find a significant difference in the concentration of tubulin and MAP protein between the different sectors of the optic nerve head... The uniform distribution of these proteins suggests that, unlike neurofilaments, they are less likely to be influenced by, or modulate, regional metabolic activity in the optic nerve head... In conclusion, this study demonstrates significant differences in the sectoral pattern of NFM, NFH and NFHp distribution in the anterior portion of the optic nerve head, which has not been described before to our knowledge... Previously NFs loss and dephosphorylation of NFs have been demonstrated in animal models of optic nerve injury including a glaucoma model (Kashiwagi et al., 2003; Balaratnasingam et al., 2007; Chidlow et al., 2011)... However, using birefringence and the optical properties of the retina, early change in reflectance of retinal nerve fiber layer preceding axonal loss has been documented (Hwang et al., 2011).

No MeSH data available.


Confocal microscope images of the prelaminar, anterior lamina cribrosa (anterior LC), posterior lamina cribrosa (posterior LC) and retrolaminar regions of human optic nerves stained with antibodies to neurofilament heavy subunit (NFH) (A to D), neurofilament medium subunit (NFM) (E to H), neurofilament light subunit (NFL) (I to L), Tubulin (M to P) and microtubule associated protein (MAP)-1 (Q to T).Images are pseudo coloured according to the pixel intensity scale presented at the bottom of the images. Arrows allow orientation of the superior (S), inferior (I), nasal (N) and temporal (T) margins of the images. Scale bar: 300 μm. Note: Reproduced from Kang et al., 2014, Sectoral variations in the distribution of axonal cytoskeleton proteins in the human optic nerve head. Exp Eye Res 128:141-150.
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Figure 3: Confocal microscope images of the prelaminar, anterior lamina cribrosa (anterior LC), posterior lamina cribrosa (posterior LC) and retrolaminar regions of human optic nerves stained with antibodies to neurofilament heavy subunit (NFH) (A to D), neurofilament medium subunit (NFM) (E to H), neurofilament light subunit (NFL) (I to L), Tubulin (M to P) and microtubule associated protein (MAP)-1 (Q to T).Images are pseudo coloured according to the pixel intensity scale presented at the bottom of the images. Arrows allow orientation of the superior (S), inferior (I), nasal (N) and temporal (T) margins of the images. Scale bar: 300 μm. Note: Reproduced from Kang et al., 2014, Sectoral variations in the distribution of axonal cytoskeleton proteins in the human optic nerve head. Exp Eye Res 128:141-150.

Mentions: The major finding of this study is that significant differences exist in the sectoral pattern of NFM, NFH and NFHp distribution in the prelaminar, anterior lamina cribrosa and posterior lamina cribrosa regions of the optic nerve head (Figures 2 and 3). Specifically, the intensity of these cytoskeleton proteins is greatest in the superior-, inferior- and nasal-peripheral sectors of the optic nerve head. The inner nasal sector, on the other hand, exhibited lowest intensity of these cytoskeletons in the prelaminar, anterior lamina cribrosa and posterior lamina cribrosa regions of the optic nerve head. Earlier histopathology studies showed that, in pressure-induced axonal injury, the nasal sector of the neural tissue is rarely affected whereas superior and inferior peripheral regions of the optic nerve are most vulnerable (Quigley et al., 1982, 1988). These regions of preferential damage correspond to the sectors where the greatest concentration of NFHp, NFH and NFM was identified in this study.


Distribution pattern of axonal cytoskeleton proteins in the human optic nerve head.

Kang MH, Yu DY - Neural Regen Res (2015)

Confocal microscope images of the prelaminar, anterior lamina cribrosa (anterior LC), posterior lamina cribrosa (posterior LC) and retrolaminar regions of human optic nerves stained with antibodies to neurofilament heavy subunit (NFH) (A to D), neurofilament medium subunit (NFM) (E to H), neurofilament light subunit (NFL) (I to L), Tubulin (M to P) and microtubule associated protein (MAP)-1 (Q to T).Images are pseudo coloured according to the pixel intensity scale presented at the bottom of the images. Arrows allow orientation of the superior (S), inferior (I), nasal (N) and temporal (T) margins of the images. Scale bar: 300 μm. Note: Reproduced from Kang et al., 2014, Sectoral variations in the distribution of axonal cytoskeleton proteins in the human optic nerve head. Exp Eye Res 128:141-150.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 3: Confocal microscope images of the prelaminar, anterior lamina cribrosa (anterior LC), posterior lamina cribrosa (posterior LC) and retrolaminar regions of human optic nerves stained with antibodies to neurofilament heavy subunit (NFH) (A to D), neurofilament medium subunit (NFM) (E to H), neurofilament light subunit (NFL) (I to L), Tubulin (M to P) and microtubule associated protein (MAP)-1 (Q to T).Images are pseudo coloured according to the pixel intensity scale presented at the bottom of the images. Arrows allow orientation of the superior (S), inferior (I), nasal (N) and temporal (T) margins of the images. Scale bar: 300 μm. Note: Reproduced from Kang et al., 2014, Sectoral variations in the distribution of axonal cytoskeleton proteins in the human optic nerve head. Exp Eye Res 128:141-150.
Mentions: The major finding of this study is that significant differences exist in the sectoral pattern of NFM, NFH and NFHp distribution in the prelaminar, anterior lamina cribrosa and posterior lamina cribrosa regions of the optic nerve head (Figures 2 and 3). Specifically, the intensity of these cytoskeleton proteins is greatest in the superior-, inferior- and nasal-peripheral sectors of the optic nerve head. The inner nasal sector, on the other hand, exhibited lowest intensity of these cytoskeletons in the prelaminar, anterior lamina cribrosa and posterior lamina cribrosa regions of the optic nerve head. Earlier histopathology studies showed that, in pressure-induced axonal injury, the nasal sector of the neural tissue is rarely affected whereas superior and inferior peripheral regions of the optic nerve are most vulnerable (Quigley et al., 1982, 1988). These regions of preferential damage correspond to the sectors where the greatest concentration of NFHp, NFH and NFM was identified in this study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia; Lions Eye Institute, 2 Verdun Street, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

It is a progressive optic neuropathy where structural loss of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons corresponds with functional visual field defect... Glaucoma is distinguished from other optic neuropathies by its selective loss of RGC axons... Superior and inferior peripheral nerve sectors are found to be most vulnerable to pressure induced injury whereas the inner temporal sector is most resilient (Quigley et al., 1988)... At any one time, approximately 80% of NFH and NFM proteins are phosphorylated (Petzold, 2005)... Previous reports have documented that axons of larger RGCs are found to be more vulnerable to glaucomatous axonal injury which are concentrated in the peripheral optic nerve head (Quigley et el., 1982)... Another finding of this study is that all axonal cytoskeleton proteins are evenly distributed across different sectors in the retrolaminar region of the optic nerve head... The intensity of all axonal cytoskeleton proteins in the retrolaminar region was significantly lower when compared to prelaminar, anterior laminar cribrosa and posterior laminar cribrosa regions... RGC axons are unmyelinated in the anterior portion of the optic nerve head (specifically, prelaminar, anterior laminar and posterior lamina cribrosa regions) and becomes myelinated from the retrolaminar region... The presence of myelin may also explain the relatively uniform distribution of cytoskeleton protein within the retrolaminar region... Lastly, we did not find a significant difference in the concentration of tubulin and MAP protein between the different sectors of the optic nerve head... The uniform distribution of these proteins suggests that, unlike neurofilaments, they are less likely to be influenced by, or modulate, regional metabolic activity in the optic nerve head... In conclusion, this study demonstrates significant differences in the sectoral pattern of NFM, NFH and NFHp distribution in the anterior portion of the optic nerve head, which has not been described before to our knowledge... Previously NFs loss and dephosphorylation of NFs have been demonstrated in animal models of optic nerve injury including a glaucoma model (Kashiwagi et al., 2003; Balaratnasingam et al., 2007; Chidlow et al., 2011)... However, using birefringence and the optical properties of the retina, early change in reflectance of retinal nerve fiber layer preceding axonal loss has been documented (Hwang et al., 2011).

No MeSH data available.