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Attainment rate as a surrogate indicator of the intervertebral neutral zone length in lateral bending: an in vitro proof of concept study.

Breen AC, Dupac M, Osborne N - Chiropr Man Therap (2015)

Bottom Line: Bending moments about each intervertebral joint were calculated and correlated with the rate at which global motion was attained at each intervertebral segment in the first 10° of global motion where the intervertebral joint was rotating.However the results must be treated with caution.Further studies with multiple specimens and adding sagittal plane motion are warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Design Engineering and Computing, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, BH1 5BB UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lumbar segmental instability is often considered to be a cause of chronic low back pain. However, defining its measurement has been largely limited to laboratory studies. These have characterised segmental stability as the intrinsic resistance of spine specimens to initial bending moments by quantifying the dynamic neutral zone. However these measurements have been impossible to obtain in vivo without invasive procedures, preventing the assessment of intervertebral stability in patients. Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF), measures the initial velocity of the attainment of intervertebral rotational motion in patients, which may to some extent be representative of the dynamic neutral zone. This study sought to explore the possible relationship between the dynamic neutral zone and intervertebral rotational attainment rate as measured with (QF) in an in vitro preparation. The purpose was to find out if further work into this concept is worth pursuing.

Method: This study used passive recumbent QF in a multi-segmental porcine model. This assessed the intrinsic intervertebral responses to a minimal coronal plane bending moment as measured with a digital force guage. Bending moments about each intervertebral joint were calculated and correlated with the rate at which global motion was attained at each intervertebral segment in the first 10° of global motion where the intervertebral joint was rotating.

Results: Unlike previous studies of single segment specimens, a neutral zone was found to exist during lateral bending. The initial attainment rates for left and right lateral flexion were comparable to previously published in vivo values for healthy controls. Substantial and highly significant levels of correlation between initial attainment rate and neutral zone were found for left (Rho = 0.75, P = 0.0002) and combined left-right bending (Rho = 0.72, P = 0.0001) and moderate ones for right alone (Rho = 0.55, P = 0.0012).

Conclusions: This study found good correlation between the initial intervertebral attainment rate and the dynamic neutral zone, thereby opening the possibility to detect segmental instability from clinical studies. However the results must be treated with caution. Further studies with multiple specimens and adding sagittal plane motion are warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mechanical model of two successive vertebrae, modelled as having negligible thickness and uniform mass distribution. The figure shows action and reaction forces, net moments of force, and all linear and angular accelerations. Gravitational forces are ignored as they are not applicable in the plane of motion
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Fig3: Mechanical model of two successive vertebrae, modelled as having negligible thickness and uniform mass distribution. The figure shows action and reaction forces, net moments of force, and all linear and angular accelerations. Gravitational forces are ignored as they are not applicable in the plane of motion

Mentions: The changing intervertebral angles of the specimen were co-ordinated with the timing and position of the motion platform. The intervertebral angles of the specimen when the motion platform reached 10°, the moments applied at each intervertebral joint and the motion platform rotation were recorded dynamically. The positions of the point of load application/measurement and the individual joint centres were derived from the trackings of each vertebra in each image frame. Since the centres of rotation between vertebrae are not generally to be found in the joint centre and due to the elasticity of the intervertebral joint, these distances varied slightly during motion and were incorporated into the continuous calculation of moments as detailed below. Forces and moments could not be measured directly at each joint, therefore estimation of forces and moments of forces were derived from the kinematics and inertial properties of the spine by applying the process of inverse dynamics. Modelling the spine as a series of free bending rods of negligible thickness and with uniform mass distribution, an estimation of forces and moments was derived based on D’Alembert’s principle (Fig. 3). One can write the Newton-Euler equations as:1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ {{\displaystyle \sum \mathbf{F}={m}_i\mathbf{a}}}_i\iff \left(-{\mathbf{F}}_{i-1}\right)+{\mathbf{F}}_i+{m}_i\mathbf{g}={m}_i{\mathbf{a}}_i $$\end{document}∑F=miai⇔−Fi−1+Fi+mig=miai2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ {\displaystyle \sum \mathbf{M}={I}_i{\boldsymbol{\upalpha}}_i}\iff \left(-{\mathbf{M}}_{i-1}\right)+{\mathbf{r}}_{i-1}\times \left(-{\mathbf{F}}_{i-1}\right)+{\mathbf{M}}_i+{\mathbf{r}}_i\times {\mathbf{F}}_i={I}_i{\boldsymbol{\upalpha}}_i $$\end{document}∑M=Iiαi⇔−Mi−1+ri−1×−Fi−1+Mi+ri×Fi=IiαiFig. 3


Attainment rate as a surrogate indicator of the intervertebral neutral zone length in lateral bending: an in vitro proof of concept study.

Breen AC, Dupac M, Osborne N - Chiropr Man Therap (2015)

Mechanical model of two successive vertebrae, modelled as having negligible thickness and uniform mass distribution. The figure shows action and reaction forces, net moments of force, and all linear and angular accelerations. Gravitational forces are ignored as they are not applicable in the plane of motion
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589909&req=5

Fig3: Mechanical model of two successive vertebrae, modelled as having negligible thickness and uniform mass distribution. The figure shows action and reaction forces, net moments of force, and all linear and angular accelerations. Gravitational forces are ignored as they are not applicable in the plane of motion
Mentions: The changing intervertebral angles of the specimen were co-ordinated with the timing and position of the motion platform. The intervertebral angles of the specimen when the motion platform reached 10°, the moments applied at each intervertebral joint and the motion platform rotation were recorded dynamically. The positions of the point of load application/measurement and the individual joint centres were derived from the trackings of each vertebra in each image frame. Since the centres of rotation between vertebrae are not generally to be found in the joint centre and due to the elasticity of the intervertebral joint, these distances varied slightly during motion and were incorporated into the continuous calculation of moments as detailed below. Forces and moments could not be measured directly at each joint, therefore estimation of forces and moments of forces were derived from the kinematics and inertial properties of the spine by applying the process of inverse dynamics. Modelling the spine as a series of free bending rods of negligible thickness and with uniform mass distribution, an estimation of forces and moments was derived based on D’Alembert’s principle (Fig. 3). One can write the Newton-Euler equations as:1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ {{\displaystyle \sum \mathbf{F}={m}_i\mathbf{a}}}_i\iff \left(-{\mathbf{F}}_{i-1}\right)+{\mathbf{F}}_i+{m}_i\mathbf{g}={m}_i{\mathbf{a}}_i $$\end{document}∑F=miai⇔−Fi−1+Fi+mig=miai2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ {\displaystyle \sum \mathbf{M}={I}_i{\boldsymbol{\upalpha}}_i}\iff \left(-{\mathbf{M}}_{i-1}\right)+{\mathbf{r}}_{i-1}\times \left(-{\mathbf{F}}_{i-1}\right)+{\mathbf{M}}_i+{\mathbf{r}}_i\times {\mathbf{F}}_i={I}_i{\boldsymbol{\upalpha}}_i $$\end{document}∑M=Iiαi⇔−Mi−1+ri−1×−Fi−1+Mi+ri×Fi=IiαiFig. 3

Bottom Line: Bending moments about each intervertebral joint were calculated and correlated with the rate at which global motion was attained at each intervertebral segment in the first 10° of global motion where the intervertebral joint was rotating.However the results must be treated with caution.Further studies with multiple specimens and adding sagittal plane motion are warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Design Engineering and Computing, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, BH1 5BB UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lumbar segmental instability is often considered to be a cause of chronic low back pain. However, defining its measurement has been largely limited to laboratory studies. These have characterised segmental stability as the intrinsic resistance of spine specimens to initial bending moments by quantifying the dynamic neutral zone. However these measurements have been impossible to obtain in vivo without invasive procedures, preventing the assessment of intervertebral stability in patients. Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF), measures the initial velocity of the attainment of intervertebral rotational motion in patients, which may to some extent be representative of the dynamic neutral zone. This study sought to explore the possible relationship between the dynamic neutral zone and intervertebral rotational attainment rate as measured with (QF) in an in vitro preparation. The purpose was to find out if further work into this concept is worth pursuing.

Method: This study used passive recumbent QF in a multi-segmental porcine model. This assessed the intrinsic intervertebral responses to a minimal coronal plane bending moment as measured with a digital force guage. Bending moments about each intervertebral joint were calculated and correlated with the rate at which global motion was attained at each intervertebral segment in the first 10° of global motion where the intervertebral joint was rotating.

Results: Unlike previous studies of single segment specimens, a neutral zone was found to exist during lateral bending. The initial attainment rates for left and right lateral flexion were comparable to previously published in vivo values for healthy controls. Substantial and highly significant levels of correlation between initial attainment rate and neutral zone were found for left (Rho = 0.75, P = 0.0002) and combined left-right bending (Rho = 0.72, P = 0.0001) and moderate ones for right alone (Rho = 0.55, P = 0.0012).

Conclusions: This study found good correlation between the initial intervertebral attainment rate and the dynamic neutral zone, thereby opening the possibility to detect segmental instability from clinical studies. However the results must be treated with caution. Further studies with multiple specimens and adding sagittal plane motion are warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus