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Volatile fragrances associated with flowers mediate host plant alternation of a polyphagous mirid bug.

Pan H, Lu Y, Xiu C, Geng H, Cai X, Sun X, Zhang Y, Williams Iii L, Wyckhuys KA, Wu K - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The adults prefer host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatially and temporally.In olfactometer tests with 18 key host species, the adults preferred flowering plants over non-flowering plants of each species.Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography revealed the presence of seven electrophysiologically active compounds from flowering plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important insect pest of cotton and fruit trees in China. The adults prefer host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatially and temporally. In this study, we examine whether flower preference of its adults is mediated by plant volatiles, and which volatile compositions play an important role in attracting them. In olfactometer tests with 18 key host species, the adults preferred flowering plants over non-flowering plants of each species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography revealed the presence of seven electrophysiologically active compounds from flowering plants. Although the adults responded to all seven synthetic plant volatiles in electroantennography tests, only four (m-xylene, butyl acrylate, butyl propionate and butyl butyrate) elicited positive behavioral responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The adults were strongly attracted to these four active volatiles in multi-year laboratory and field trials. Our results suggest that these four fragrant volatiles, which are emitted in greater amounts once plants begin to flower, mediate A. lucorum's preference to flowering host plants. We proved that the use of commonly occurring plant volatiles to recognize a large range of plant species can facilitate host selection and preference of polyphagous insect herbivore.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Coupled GC-EADs of adult female and male Apolygus lucorum to volatiles from flowering host plants.(A) Agastache rugosus (Fisch. et Meyer) O. kuntze.; (B) Artemisia annua L.; (C) Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant.; (D) Artemisia lavandulaefolia DC.; (E) Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit.; (F) Cannabis sativa L.; (G) Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.; (H) Chrysanthemum coronarium L.; (I) Coriandrum sativum L.; (J) Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; (K) Gossypium hirsutum L.; (L) Helianthus annuus L.; (M) Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.; (N) Impatiens balsamina L.; (O) Ocimum basilicum L.; (P) Polygonum orientale L.; (Q) Ricinus communis L.; (R) Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. 1: (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol; 2: m-xylene; 3: Butyl acrylate; 4: Butyl propionate; 5: Butyl butyrate; 6: (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate; 7: 3-ethylbenzaldehyde. Five or more replicates were considered to show electrophysiological activity for each plant species.
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f1: Coupled GC-EADs of adult female and male Apolygus lucorum to volatiles from flowering host plants.(A) Agastache rugosus (Fisch. et Meyer) O. kuntze.; (B) Artemisia annua L.; (C) Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant.; (D) Artemisia lavandulaefolia DC.; (E) Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit.; (F) Cannabis sativa L.; (G) Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.; (H) Chrysanthemum coronarium L.; (I) Coriandrum sativum L.; (J) Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; (K) Gossypium hirsutum L.; (L) Helianthus annuus L.; (M) Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.; (N) Impatiens balsamina L.; (O) Ocimum basilicum L.; (P) Polygonum orientale L.; (Q) Ricinus communis L.; (R) Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. 1: (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol; 2: m-xylene; 3: Butyl acrylate; 4: Butyl propionate; 5: Butyl butyrate; 6: (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate; 7: 3-ethylbenzaldehyde. Five or more replicates were considered to show electrophysiological activity for each plant species.

Mentions: Coupled GC-EAD revealed, in total, seven electrophysiologically active volatiles from 18 flowering host plants. These volatiles were identified as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, m-xylene, butyl acrylate, butyl propionate, butyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and 3-ethylbenzaldehyde. At least three of these volatiles were present in all of the plant species tested, and all seven volatiles were present in two of the plant species. Thirteen plant species had six of the EAG-active volatiles. Six of the EAG-active compounds were found in most plant species [(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 14 plant species; m-xylene, 14 plant species; (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 17 plant species; butyl acrylate, butyl propionate, and butyl butyrate, each in 18 plant species]. 3-ethylbenzaldehyde was recorded from only three plant species (Fig. 1).


Volatile fragrances associated with flowers mediate host plant alternation of a polyphagous mirid bug.

Pan H, Lu Y, Xiu C, Geng H, Cai X, Sun X, Zhang Y, Williams Iii L, Wyckhuys KA, Wu K - Sci Rep (2015)

Coupled GC-EADs of adult female and male Apolygus lucorum to volatiles from flowering host plants.(A) Agastache rugosus (Fisch. et Meyer) O. kuntze.; (B) Artemisia annua L.; (C) Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant.; (D) Artemisia lavandulaefolia DC.; (E) Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit.; (F) Cannabis sativa L.; (G) Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.; (H) Chrysanthemum coronarium L.; (I) Coriandrum sativum L.; (J) Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; (K) Gossypium hirsutum L.; (L) Helianthus annuus L.; (M) Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.; (N) Impatiens balsamina L.; (O) Ocimum basilicum L.; (P) Polygonum orientale L.; (Q) Ricinus communis L.; (R) Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. 1: (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol; 2: m-xylene; 3: Butyl acrylate; 4: Butyl propionate; 5: Butyl butyrate; 6: (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate; 7: 3-ethylbenzaldehyde. Five or more replicates were considered to show electrophysiological activity for each plant species.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589772&req=5

f1: Coupled GC-EADs of adult female and male Apolygus lucorum to volatiles from flowering host plants.(A) Agastache rugosus (Fisch. et Meyer) O. kuntze.; (B) Artemisia annua L.; (C) Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant.; (D) Artemisia lavandulaefolia DC.; (E) Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit.; (F) Cannabis sativa L.; (G) Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.; (H) Chrysanthemum coronarium L.; (I) Coriandrum sativum L.; (J) Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; (K) Gossypium hirsutum L.; (L) Helianthus annuus L.; (M) Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.; (N) Impatiens balsamina L.; (O) Ocimum basilicum L.; (P) Polygonum orientale L.; (Q) Ricinus communis L.; (R) Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. 1: (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol; 2: m-xylene; 3: Butyl acrylate; 4: Butyl propionate; 5: Butyl butyrate; 6: (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate; 7: 3-ethylbenzaldehyde. Five or more replicates were considered to show electrophysiological activity for each plant species.
Mentions: Coupled GC-EAD revealed, in total, seven electrophysiologically active volatiles from 18 flowering host plants. These volatiles were identified as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, m-xylene, butyl acrylate, butyl propionate, butyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and 3-ethylbenzaldehyde. At least three of these volatiles were present in all of the plant species tested, and all seven volatiles were present in two of the plant species. Thirteen plant species had six of the EAG-active volatiles. Six of the EAG-active compounds were found in most plant species [(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 14 plant species; m-xylene, 14 plant species; (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 17 plant species; butyl acrylate, butyl propionate, and butyl butyrate, each in 18 plant species]. 3-ethylbenzaldehyde was recorded from only three plant species (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: The adults prefer host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatially and temporally.In olfactometer tests with 18 key host species, the adults preferred flowering plants over non-flowering plants of each species.Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography revealed the presence of seven electrophysiologically active compounds from flowering plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important insect pest of cotton and fruit trees in China. The adults prefer host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatially and temporally. In this study, we examine whether flower preference of its adults is mediated by plant volatiles, and which volatile compositions play an important role in attracting them. In olfactometer tests with 18 key host species, the adults preferred flowering plants over non-flowering plants of each species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography revealed the presence of seven electrophysiologically active compounds from flowering plants. Although the adults responded to all seven synthetic plant volatiles in electroantennography tests, only four (m-xylene, butyl acrylate, butyl propionate and butyl butyrate) elicited positive behavioral responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The adults were strongly attracted to these four active volatiles in multi-year laboratory and field trials. Our results suggest that these four fragrant volatiles, which are emitted in greater amounts once plants begin to flower, mediate A. lucorum's preference to flowering host plants. We proved that the use of commonly occurring plant volatiles to recognize a large range of plant species can facilitate host selection and preference of polyphagous insect herbivore.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus