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Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder.

Frissen A, Lieverse R, Drukker M, van Winkel R, Delespaul P, GROUP Investigato - Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (n = 1119) and 589 healthy controls from the Netherlands and Belgium were studied.Urban exposure was defined at four levels, considering the population density, using data from Statistics Netherlands and the equivalent database in Belgium.The urban environment may moderate the risk-increasing effect of childhood trauma for psychotic disorder and childhood urbanicity may be a risk factor for childhood trauma in individuals who later develop psychotic disorder.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616 (DRT10), 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Background: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate whether childhood urbanicity moderates the effect of childhood trauma, in a model predicting psychotic disorder; (2) to investigate whether there is an association between the urban environment and childhood trauma and whether this is moderated by genetic liability for psychotic disorder.

Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (n = 1119) and 589 healthy controls from the Netherlands and Belgium were studied. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short Form. Urban exposure was defined at four levels, considering the population density, using data from Statistics Netherlands and the equivalent database in Belgium.

Results: There was a significant interaction between childhood urbanicity on the one hand and childhood trauma on the other, indicating that trauma was significantly associated with psychotic disorder, with increasing odds ratios for higher levels of childhood urbanicity. In addition, there was weak evidence that childhood urbanicity was associated with childhood trauma in the patient group: higher levels of childhood urbanicity were associated with higher trauma scores.

Conclusion: The urban environment may moderate the risk-increasing effect of childhood trauma for psychotic disorder and childhood urbanicity may be a risk factor for childhood trauma in individuals who later develop psychotic disorder.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Childhood urbanicity moderates the association between childhood trauma and psychotic disorder. Childhood urbanicity is associated with social adversity, which is associated with stress. Any effect of childhood trauma on psychotic disorder in the urban environment may increase because of higher background levels of stress
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Fig1: Childhood urbanicity moderates the association between childhood trauma and psychotic disorder. Childhood urbanicity is associated with social adversity, which is associated with stress. Any effect of childhood trauma on psychotic disorder in the urban environment may increase because of higher background levels of stress

Mentions: It is not known whether urbanization moderates the effect of childhood trauma in psychosis. It may be hypothesized that the urban environment occasions a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases, which would indicate a model of moderation (Fig. 1). A related hypothesis is that any impact of the urban environment on the likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma is stronger in children with higher level of genetic risk for psychotic disorder (moderation by genetic risk; Fig. 2). For example, early alterations in social cognition [12–15] may increase the likelihood of exposure to childhood adversities in individuals who later develop psychotic disorder, when brought up in an urban environment. To address these issues, triangular associations between urbanicity, trauma and psychosis were examined in two directions: (1) is there evidence that childhood urban environment moderates the effect of childhood trauma on the development of psychotic disorder? and (2) is there evidence of an association between the urban environment and childhood trauma, and is this contingent on genetic liability for psychotic disorder?Fig. 1


Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder.

Frissen A, Lieverse R, Drukker M, van Winkel R, Delespaul P, GROUP Investigato - Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol (2015)

Childhood urbanicity moderates the association between childhood trauma and psychotic disorder. Childhood urbanicity is associated with social adversity, which is associated with stress. Any effect of childhood trauma on psychotic disorder in the urban environment may increase because of higher background levels of stress
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589545&req=5

Fig1: Childhood urbanicity moderates the association between childhood trauma and psychotic disorder. Childhood urbanicity is associated with social adversity, which is associated with stress. Any effect of childhood trauma on psychotic disorder in the urban environment may increase because of higher background levels of stress
Mentions: It is not known whether urbanization moderates the effect of childhood trauma in psychosis. It may be hypothesized that the urban environment occasions a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases, which would indicate a model of moderation (Fig. 1). A related hypothesis is that any impact of the urban environment on the likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma is stronger in children with higher level of genetic risk for psychotic disorder (moderation by genetic risk; Fig. 2). For example, early alterations in social cognition [12–15] may increase the likelihood of exposure to childhood adversities in individuals who later develop psychotic disorder, when brought up in an urban environment. To address these issues, triangular associations between urbanicity, trauma and psychosis were examined in two directions: (1) is there evidence that childhood urban environment moderates the effect of childhood trauma on the development of psychotic disorder? and (2) is there evidence of an association between the urban environment and childhood trauma, and is this contingent on genetic liability for psychotic disorder?Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (n = 1119) and 589 healthy controls from the Netherlands and Belgium were studied.Urban exposure was defined at four levels, considering the population density, using data from Statistics Netherlands and the equivalent database in Belgium.The urban environment may moderate the risk-increasing effect of childhood trauma for psychotic disorder and childhood urbanicity may be a risk factor for childhood trauma in individuals who later develop psychotic disorder.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616 (DRT10), 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Background: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate whether childhood urbanicity moderates the effect of childhood trauma, in a model predicting psychotic disorder; (2) to investigate whether there is an association between the urban environment and childhood trauma and whether this is moderated by genetic liability for psychotic disorder.

Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (n = 1119) and 589 healthy controls from the Netherlands and Belgium were studied. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short Form. Urban exposure was defined at four levels, considering the population density, using data from Statistics Netherlands and the equivalent database in Belgium.

Results: There was a significant interaction between childhood urbanicity on the one hand and childhood trauma on the other, indicating that trauma was significantly associated with psychotic disorder, with increasing odds ratios for higher levels of childhood urbanicity. In addition, there was weak evidence that childhood urbanicity was associated with childhood trauma in the patient group: higher levels of childhood urbanicity were associated with higher trauma scores.

Conclusion: The urban environment may moderate the risk-increasing effect of childhood trauma for psychotic disorder and childhood urbanicity may be a risk factor for childhood trauma in individuals who later develop psychotic disorder.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus