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Photoprotection as a Trait for Rice Yield Improvement: Status and Prospects.

Murchie EH, Ali A, Herman T - Rice (N Y) (2015)

Bottom Line: Photoprotective mechanisms at the chloroplast level help to avoid oxidative stress and photoinhibition, which is a light-induced reduction in photosynthetic quantum efficiency often caused by damage to photosystem II.Here we examine this evidence and identify new areas for attention.In particular we discuss how photoprotective mechanisms must be optimised at both the molecular and the canopy level in order to coordinate with efficient photosynthetic regulation and realise an increased biomass and yield in rice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Plant and Crop Science, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD, UK. erik.murchie@nottingham.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Solar radiation is essential for photosynthesis and global crop productivity but it is also variable in space and time, frequently being limiting or in excess of plant requirements depending on season, environment and microclimate. Photoprotective mechanisms at the chloroplast level help to avoid oxidative stress and photoinhibition, which is a light-induced reduction in photosynthetic quantum efficiency often caused by damage to photosystem II. There is convincing evidence that photoinhibition has a large impact on biomass production in crops and this may be especially high in rice, which is typically exposed to high tropical light levels. Thus far there has been little attention to photoinhibition as a target for improvement of crop yield. However, we now have sufficient evidence to examine avenues for alleviation of this particular stress and the physiological and genetic basis for improvement in rice and other crops. Here we examine this evidence and identify new areas for attention. In particular we discuss how photoprotective mechanisms must be optimised at both the molecular and the canopy level in order to coordinate with efficient photosynthetic regulation and realise an increased biomass and yield in rice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Summary of the major processes involved in protective NPQ and photoinhibition described in this mini-review. The objective of this figure is to help explain why the tradeoffs between photoprotection, photoinhibition and photosynthesis occur. D1, D2, CP47 and CP43 refer to PSII proteins. LHCII is the light harvesting complex associated with PSII and OEC refers to the oxygen evolving complex of PSII
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Fig2: Summary of the major processes involved in protective NPQ and photoinhibition described in this mini-review. The objective of this figure is to help explain why the tradeoffs between photoprotection, photoinhibition and photosynthesis occur. D1, D2, CP47 and CP43 refer to PSII proteins. LHCII is the light harvesting complex associated with PSII and OEC refers to the oxygen evolving complex of PSII

Mentions: In order to reduce photoinhibition, plants have evolved a cascade of adaptive mechanisms at both leaf and cellular levels (Fig. 2) (Demmig-Adams and Adams 2006; Murchie and Niyogi 2011). Photoprotection can occur via the avoidance of high light or the metabolic processing of absorbed light energy to avoid oxidative stress. Avoidance can involve the repositioning of leaves to minimise light absorption and altering the angle of incidence to enhance reflection (Murchie et al. 2009) or the movement of chloroplasts along cell walls (Wada et al. 2003). In this way, leaf angle may be a major factor in the onset of photoinhibition (Murchie et al. 1999). Accumulation of UV- absorbing compounds, for example in the leaf cuticle, may also contribute to photoprotection (Hakala-Yatkin et al. 2010; Takahashi et al. 2010).


Photoprotection as a Trait for Rice Yield Improvement: Status and Prospects.

Murchie EH, Ali A, Herman T - Rice (N Y) (2015)

Summary of the major processes involved in protective NPQ and photoinhibition described in this mini-review. The objective of this figure is to help explain why the tradeoffs between photoprotection, photoinhibition and photosynthesis occur. D1, D2, CP47 and CP43 refer to PSII proteins. LHCII is the light harvesting complex associated with PSII and OEC refers to the oxygen evolving complex of PSII
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589542&req=5

Fig2: Summary of the major processes involved in protective NPQ and photoinhibition described in this mini-review. The objective of this figure is to help explain why the tradeoffs between photoprotection, photoinhibition and photosynthesis occur. D1, D2, CP47 and CP43 refer to PSII proteins. LHCII is the light harvesting complex associated with PSII and OEC refers to the oxygen evolving complex of PSII
Mentions: In order to reduce photoinhibition, plants have evolved a cascade of adaptive mechanisms at both leaf and cellular levels (Fig. 2) (Demmig-Adams and Adams 2006; Murchie and Niyogi 2011). Photoprotection can occur via the avoidance of high light or the metabolic processing of absorbed light energy to avoid oxidative stress. Avoidance can involve the repositioning of leaves to minimise light absorption and altering the angle of incidence to enhance reflection (Murchie et al. 2009) or the movement of chloroplasts along cell walls (Wada et al. 2003). In this way, leaf angle may be a major factor in the onset of photoinhibition (Murchie et al. 1999). Accumulation of UV- absorbing compounds, for example in the leaf cuticle, may also contribute to photoprotection (Hakala-Yatkin et al. 2010; Takahashi et al. 2010).

Bottom Line: Photoprotective mechanisms at the chloroplast level help to avoid oxidative stress and photoinhibition, which is a light-induced reduction in photosynthetic quantum efficiency often caused by damage to photosystem II.Here we examine this evidence and identify new areas for attention.In particular we discuss how photoprotective mechanisms must be optimised at both the molecular and the canopy level in order to coordinate with efficient photosynthetic regulation and realise an increased biomass and yield in rice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Plant and Crop Science, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD, UK. erik.murchie@nottingham.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Solar radiation is essential for photosynthesis and global crop productivity but it is also variable in space and time, frequently being limiting or in excess of plant requirements depending on season, environment and microclimate. Photoprotective mechanisms at the chloroplast level help to avoid oxidative stress and photoinhibition, which is a light-induced reduction in photosynthetic quantum efficiency often caused by damage to photosystem II. There is convincing evidence that photoinhibition has a large impact on biomass production in crops and this may be especially high in rice, which is typically exposed to high tropical light levels. Thus far there has been little attention to photoinhibition as a target for improvement of crop yield. However, we now have sufficient evidence to examine avenues for alleviation of this particular stress and the physiological and genetic basis for improvement in rice and other crops. Here we examine this evidence and identify new areas for attention. In particular we discuss how photoprotective mechanisms must be optimised at both the molecular and the canopy level in order to coordinate with efficient photosynthetic regulation and realise an increased biomass and yield in rice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus