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Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy.

Santiago-Rodriguez TM, Fornaciari G, Luciani S, Dowd SE, Toranzos GA, Marota I, Cano RJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified.The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures.Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic reconstruction of large ribosomal subunit alpha from ancient T. cruzi and extant T. cruzi strains CL Brenner and Esmeraldo, and Leishmania donovani.Analyses were performed using maximum likelihood phylogeny using Neighbor Joining, and Jukes Cantor distance with bootstrap resampling (100 replicates). Branch lengths are shown.
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pone.0138135.g008: Phylogenetic reconstruction of large ribosomal subunit alpha from ancient T. cruzi and extant T. cruzi strains CL Brenner and Esmeraldo, and Leishmania donovani.Analyses were performed using maximum likelihood phylogeny using Neighbor Joining, and Jukes Cantor distance with bootstrap resampling (100 replicates). Branch lengths are shown.

Mentions: Given the proportion of unclassified eukaryotic sequences in the mummified gut (Fig 6), we investigated the possibility that some may share homology with extant T. cruzi by performing BLASTn against seven known strains of T. cruzi (S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7 and S8 Datasets). BLASTn results were obtained from all seven strains and are summarized in S6 Table. The large ribosomal subunit alpha was then used for the phylogenetic analyses, with which we first performed BLASTn against the NCBInr database to validate this region, showing that the gene in presumptive ancient T. cruzi has a 90% identity with modern T. cruzi strain CL Brener (e-value = 6e-30). By comparing a partial sequence homologous to the large ribosomal subunit alpha of the presumptive ancient T. cruzi with modern strains CL Brenner and Esmeraldo, and L. donovani, we suggest that this pathogen may have a more remote origin than previously expected (Fig 8)(S9 Dataset).


Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy.

Santiago-Rodriguez TM, Fornaciari G, Luciani S, Dowd SE, Toranzos GA, Marota I, Cano RJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Phylogenetic reconstruction of large ribosomal subunit alpha from ancient T. cruzi and extant T. cruzi strains CL Brenner and Esmeraldo, and Leishmania donovani.Analyses were performed using maximum likelihood phylogeny using Neighbor Joining, and Jukes Cantor distance with bootstrap resampling (100 replicates). Branch lengths are shown.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589460&req=5

pone.0138135.g008: Phylogenetic reconstruction of large ribosomal subunit alpha from ancient T. cruzi and extant T. cruzi strains CL Brenner and Esmeraldo, and Leishmania donovani.Analyses were performed using maximum likelihood phylogeny using Neighbor Joining, and Jukes Cantor distance with bootstrap resampling (100 replicates). Branch lengths are shown.
Mentions: Given the proportion of unclassified eukaryotic sequences in the mummified gut (Fig 6), we investigated the possibility that some may share homology with extant T. cruzi by performing BLASTn against seven known strains of T. cruzi (S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7 and S8 Datasets). BLASTn results were obtained from all seven strains and are summarized in S6 Table. The large ribosomal subunit alpha was then used for the phylogenetic analyses, with which we first performed BLASTn against the NCBInr database to validate this region, showing that the gene in presumptive ancient T. cruzi has a 90% identity with modern T. cruzi strain CL Brener (e-value = 6e-30). By comparing a partial sequence homologous to the large ribosomal subunit alpha of the presumptive ancient T. cruzi with modern strains CL Brenner and Esmeraldo, and L. donovani, we suggest that this pathogen may have a more remote origin than previously expected (Fig 8)(S9 Dataset).

Bottom Line: Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified.The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures.Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus