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Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

Hagedorn M, Carter VL - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not.Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05).These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Reproductive Sciences, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute- National Zoological Park, Front Royal, VA, United States of America; Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Kaneohe, HI, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

No MeSH data available.


Comparative vitrification results, using the Vitri-3 treatment, for Symbiodinium from three Hawaiian coral species.At least ~50% survival was achieved regardless of source of the symbionts.
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pone.0136358.g004: Comparative vitrification results, using the Vitri-3 treatment, for Symbiodinium from three Hawaiian coral species.At least ~50% survival was achieved regardless of source of the symbionts.

Mentions: The Vitri-3 protocol using the Cryotops produced survival in the Symbiodinium of all three species tested. Survival in P. damicornis was higher (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test, Fig 4) with a mean change in quantum yield of 18.6%, compared to 56% and 47% for F. scutaria and P. compressa, respectively (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis).


Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

Hagedorn M, Carter VL - PLoS ONE (2015)

Comparative vitrification results, using the Vitri-3 treatment, for Symbiodinium from three Hawaiian coral species.At least ~50% survival was achieved regardless of source of the symbionts.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589415&req=5

pone.0136358.g004: Comparative vitrification results, using the Vitri-3 treatment, for Symbiodinium from three Hawaiian coral species.At least ~50% survival was achieved regardless of source of the symbionts.
Mentions: The Vitri-3 protocol using the Cryotops produced survival in the Symbiodinium of all three species tested. Survival in P. damicornis was higher (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test, Fig 4) with a mean change in quantum yield of 18.6%, compared to 56% and 47% for F. scutaria and P. compressa, respectively (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis).

Bottom Line: Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not.Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05).These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Reproductive Sciences, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute- National Zoological Park, Front Royal, VA, United States of America; Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Kaneohe, HI, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

No MeSH data available.