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Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

Hagedorn M, Carter VL - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not.Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05).These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Reproductive Sciences, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute- National Zoological Park, Front Royal, VA, United States of America; Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Kaneohe, HI, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

No MeSH data available.


Symbiodinium and seasonal vitrification success.A) Winter and spring were optimal times for vitrification. Bars with differing superscripts were different (P < 0.05); B) A seasonal measure of PAR on Coconut Island, where winter months had the lowest light values (data from [44]); C) Seasonal temperature values on Coconut Island in 2014 where parts of fall and winter months had the lowest ambient temperatures.
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pone.0136358.g003: Symbiodinium and seasonal vitrification success.A) Winter and spring were optimal times for vitrification. Bars with differing superscripts were different (P < 0.05); B) A seasonal measure of PAR on Coconut Island, where winter months had the lowest light values (data from [44]); C) Seasonal temperature values on Coconut Island in 2014 where parts of fall and winter months had the lowest ambient temperatures.

Mentions: When Symbiodinium samples were collected throughout the year and then vitrified with the single best protocol (Vitri-3), a seasonal pattern was revealed (S4 Fig). Samples collected in the winter month of February exhibited the most robust response to vitrification with a mean quantum yield change of 6.3% in 2014 and 22.5% in 2015. In a comparison example, samples from the summer month of June produced a mean quantum yield change of 70%. To understand the influence of time of year more clearly, months were clustered into seasons and compared with mean water temperature and PAR values on Coconut Island [44] (Fig 3). On average, there was a 37 and 44% change in quantum yield in the winter and spring, respectively, compared to 60% for both the summer and fall (P> 0.05, ANOVA, F- = 5.16; Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test, Fig 3A). The environmental conditions that might influence seasonality in the Symbiodinium are PAR light level and water temperature at Coconut Island (Fig 3B and 3C).


Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

Hagedorn M, Carter VL - PLoS ONE (2015)

Symbiodinium and seasonal vitrification success.A) Winter and spring were optimal times for vitrification. Bars with differing superscripts were different (P < 0.05); B) A seasonal measure of PAR on Coconut Island, where winter months had the lowest light values (data from [44]); C) Seasonal temperature values on Coconut Island in 2014 where parts of fall and winter months had the lowest ambient temperatures.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589415&req=5

pone.0136358.g003: Symbiodinium and seasonal vitrification success.A) Winter and spring were optimal times for vitrification. Bars with differing superscripts were different (P < 0.05); B) A seasonal measure of PAR on Coconut Island, where winter months had the lowest light values (data from [44]); C) Seasonal temperature values on Coconut Island in 2014 where parts of fall and winter months had the lowest ambient temperatures.
Mentions: When Symbiodinium samples were collected throughout the year and then vitrified with the single best protocol (Vitri-3), a seasonal pattern was revealed (S4 Fig). Samples collected in the winter month of February exhibited the most robust response to vitrification with a mean quantum yield change of 6.3% in 2014 and 22.5% in 2015. In a comparison example, samples from the summer month of June produced a mean quantum yield change of 70%. To understand the influence of time of year more clearly, months were clustered into seasons and compared with mean water temperature and PAR values on Coconut Island [44] (Fig 3). On average, there was a 37 and 44% change in quantum yield in the winter and spring, respectively, compared to 60% for both the summer and fall (P> 0.05, ANOVA, F- = 5.16; Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test, Fig 3A). The environmental conditions that might influence seasonality in the Symbiodinium are PAR light level and water temperature at Coconut Island (Fig 3B and 3C).

Bottom Line: Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not.Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05).These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Reproductive Sciences, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute- National Zoological Park, Front Royal, VA, United States of America; Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Kaneohe, HI, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

No MeSH data available.