Limits...
Characterization of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryote Symbionts from Antarctic Sponges Reveals a High Diversity at a Three-Domain Level and a Particular Signature for This Ecosystem.

Rodríguez-Marconi S, De la Iglesia R, Díez B, Fonseca CA, Hajdu E, Trefault N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities.We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment.Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Sponge-associated microbial communities include members from the three domains of life. In the case of bacteria, they are diverse, host specific and different from the surrounding seawater. However, little is known about the diversity and specificity of Eukarya and Archaea living in association with marine sponges. This knowledge gap is even greater regarding sponges from regions other than temperate and tropical environments. In Antarctica, marine sponges are abundant and important members of the benthos, structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem. In this study, we used high throughput ribosomal gene sequencing to investigate the three-domain diversity and community composition from eight different Antarctic sponges. Taxonomic identification reveals that they belong to families Acarnidae, Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, Hymeniacidonidae, Leucettidae, Microcionidae, and Myxillidae. Our study indicates that there are different diversity and similarity patterns between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote microbial symbionts from these Antarctic marine sponges, indicating inherent differences in how organisms from different domains establish symbiotic relationships. In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities. We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

NMDS analysis of bacterial microbiota of sponges from different environments.Analysis is based on Bray-Curtis similarities of relative abundances at phylum-level. Circles indicate similarity level of 75% based on hierarchical cluster analysis. Polar: MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens. Tropical: Eform: Erylus formosus; Acra: Aiolochroia crassa; Aful: Aplysina fulva; Acauli: Aplysina cauliformis; Eferox: Ectyoplasia ferox; Pinter: Placospongia intermedia; Hvan: Haliclona vansoesti; Ccari: Chondrilla caribensis; Cmol: Chalinula molitba; Htub: Haliclona tubifera; Mlax: Mycale laxissima;Xboc: Xestospongia bocatorensis; Nere: Niphates erecta; Acomp: Amphimedon compressa; Mlae: Mycale laevis; Aerina: Amphimedon erina; Tignis:Tedania ignis; Dethe: Dysidea etheria. Warm-temperate: Rodor: Rhopaloeides odorabile; Iram: Ircinia ramosa; Herec: Hyrtios erectus; Xtest: Xestospongia testudinaria; Caus: Cinachyrella australiensis, Sdiver: Suberites diversicolor. Cold-temperate: Rram: Raspailia ramosa; Sstup: Stelligera stuposa.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589366&req=5

pone.0138837.g004: NMDS analysis of bacterial microbiota of sponges from different environments.Analysis is based on Bray-Curtis similarities of relative abundances at phylum-level. Circles indicate similarity level of 75% based on hierarchical cluster analysis. Polar: MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens. Tropical: Eform: Erylus formosus; Acra: Aiolochroia crassa; Aful: Aplysina fulva; Acauli: Aplysina cauliformis; Eferox: Ectyoplasia ferox; Pinter: Placospongia intermedia; Hvan: Haliclona vansoesti; Ccari: Chondrilla caribensis; Cmol: Chalinula molitba; Htub: Haliclona tubifera; Mlax: Mycale laxissima;Xboc: Xestospongia bocatorensis; Nere: Niphates erecta; Acomp: Amphimedon compressa; Mlae: Mycale laevis; Aerina: Amphimedon erina; Tignis:Tedania ignis; Dethe: Dysidea etheria. Warm-temperate: Rodor: Rhopaloeides odorabile; Iram: Ircinia ramosa; Herec: Hyrtios erectus; Xtest: Xestospongia testudinaria; Caus: Cinachyrella australiensis, Sdiver: Suberites diversicolor. Cold-temperate: Rram: Raspailia ramosa; Sstup: Stelligera stuposa.

Mentions: To determine if the bacterial community composition of microorganisms associated to Antarctic sponges was different from those observed elsewhere, phylum level comparisons were made between bacterial 16S rRNA gene inventories from polar (this work), warm-temperate, cold-temperate, and tropical environments [6,9,40,41,42]. NMDS analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarities (Fig 4) has shown a high distinctiveness among different environments (ANOSIM R 0.54, P > 0.001). Bacterial microbiota from Antarctic sponges are highly similar, with cold-temperate environments as the closest relatives, and warm-temperate samples as the most dissimilar. Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobiae and Planctomycetes phyla were the most relevant to define Antarctic sponge asscoiated bacterial similarity (SIMPER analysis) with 12%, 8% and 5% of contribution to total Antarctic bacterial community similarity (74%). In addition, using Bray-Curtis distances, Antarctic sponge-associated bacterial communities showed two different general patterns at 75% similarity, with K. variolosa and Haliclona (Gellius) sp. as the most dissimilar. That difference was strongly associated with a high abundance of Planctomycetes.


Characterization of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryote Symbionts from Antarctic Sponges Reveals a High Diversity at a Three-Domain Level and a Particular Signature for This Ecosystem.

Rodríguez-Marconi S, De la Iglesia R, Díez B, Fonseca CA, Hajdu E, Trefault N - PLoS ONE (2015)

NMDS analysis of bacterial microbiota of sponges from different environments.Analysis is based on Bray-Curtis similarities of relative abundances at phylum-level. Circles indicate similarity level of 75% based on hierarchical cluster analysis. Polar: MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens. Tropical: Eform: Erylus formosus; Acra: Aiolochroia crassa; Aful: Aplysina fulva; Acauli: Aplysina cauliformis; Eferox: Ectyoplasia ferox; Pinter: Placospongia intermedia; Hvan: Haliclona vansoesti; Ccari: Chondrilla caribensis; Cmol: Chalinula molitba; Htub: Haliclona tubifera; Mlax: Mycale laxissima;Xboc: Xestospongia bocatorensis; Nere: Niphates erecta; Acomp: Amphimedon compressa; Mlae: Mycale laevis; Aerina: Amphimedon erina; Tignis:Tedania ignis; Dethe: Dysidea etheria. Warm-temperate: Rodor: Rhopaloeides odorabile; Iram: Ircinia ramosa; Herec: Hyrtios erectus; Xtest: Xestospongia testudinaria; Caus: Cinachyrella australiensis, Sdiver: Suberites diversicolor. Cold-temperate: Rram: Raspailia ramosa; Sstup: Stelligera stuposa.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589366&req=5

pone.0138837.g004: NMDS analysis of bacterial microbiota of sponges from different environments.Analysis is based on Bray-Curtis similarities of relative abundances at phylum-level. Circles indicate similarity level of 75% based on hierarchical cluster analysis. Polar: MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens. Tropical: Eform: Erylus formosus; Acra: Aiolochroia crassa; Aful: Aplysina fulva; Acauli: Aplysina cauliformis; Eferox: Ectyoplasia ferox; Pinter: Placospongia intermedia; Hvan: Haliclona vansoesti; Ccari: Chondrilla caribensis; Cmol: Chalinula molitba; Htub: Haliclona tubifera; Mlax: Mycale laxissima;Xboc: Xestospongia bocatorensis; Nere: Niphates erecta; Acomp: Amphimedon compressa; Mlae: Mycale laevis; Aerina: Amphimedon erina; Tignis:Tedania ignis; Dethe: Dysidea etheria. Warm-temperate: Rodor: Rhopaloeides odorabile; Iram: Ircinia ramosa; Herec: Hyrtios erectus; Xtest: Xestospongia testudinaria; Caus: Cinachyrella australiensis, Sdiver: Suberites diversicolor. Cold-temperate: Rram: Raspailia ramosa; Sstup: Stelligera stuposa.
Mentions: To determine if the bacterial community composition of microorganisms associated to Antarctic sponges was different from those observed elsewhere, phylum level comparisons were made between bacterial 16S rRNA gene inventories from polar (this work), warm-temperate, cold-temperate, and tropical environments [6,9,40,41,42]. NMDS analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarities (Fig 4) has shown a high distinctiveness among different environments (ANOSIM R 0.54, P > 0.001). Bacterial microbiota from Antarctic sponges are highly similar, with cold-temperate environments as the closest relatives, and warm-temperate samples as the most dissimilar. Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobiae and Planctomycetes phyla were the most relevant to define Antarctic sponge asscoiated bacterial similarity (SIMPER analysis) with 12%, 8% and 5% of contribution to total Antarctic bacterial community similarity (74%). In addition, using Bray-Curtis distances, Antarctic sponge-associated bacterial communities showed two different general patterns at 75% similarity, with K. variolosa and Haliclona (Gellius) sp. as the most dissimilar. That difference was strongly associated with a high abundance of Planctomycetes.

Bottom Line: In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities.We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment.Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Sponge-associated microbial communities include members from the three domains of life. In the case of bacteria, they are diverse, host specific and different from the surrounding seawater. However, little is known about the diversity and specificity of Eukarya and Archaea living in association with marine sponges. This knowledge gap is even greater regarding sponges from regions other than temperate and tropical environments. In Antarctica, marine sponges are abundant and important members of the benthos, structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem. In this study, we used high throughput ribosomal gene sequencing to investigate the three-domain diversity and community composition from eight different Antarctic sponges. Taxonomic identification reveals that they belong to families Acarnidae, Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, Hymeniacidonidae, Leucettidae, Microcionidae, and Myxillidae. Our study indicates that there are different diversity and similarity patterns between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote microbial symbionts from these Antarctic marine sponges, indicating inherent differences in how organisms from different domains establish symbiotic relationships. In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities. We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus