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Characterization of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryote Symbionts from Antarctic Sponges Reveals a High Diversity at a Three-Domain Level and a Particular Signature for This Ecosystem.

Rodríguez-Marconi S, De la Iglesia R, Díez B, Fonseca CA, Hajdu E, Trefault N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities.We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment.Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Sponge-associated microbial communities include members from the three domains of life. In the case of bacteria, they are diverse, host specific and different from the surrounding seawater. However, little is known about the diversity and specificity of Eukarya and Archaea living in association with marine sponges. This knowledge gap is even greater regarding sponges from regions other than temperate and tropical environments. In Antarctica, marine sponges are abundant and important members of the benthos, structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem. In this study, we used high throughput ribosomal gene sequencing to investigate the three-domain diversity and community composition from eight different Antarctic sponges. Taxonomic identification reveals that they belong to families Acarnidae, Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, Hymeniacidonidae, Leucettidae, Microcionidae, and Myxillidae. Our study indicates that there are different diversity and similarity patterns between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote microbial symbionts from these Antarctic marine sponges, indicating inherent differences in how organisms from different domains establish symbiotic relationships. In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities. We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

OTU distribution and clustering.Heatmaps representing the relative abundance (50 most abundant OTUs) of bacterial/archaeal (A) and eukaryote (B) taxa associated to Antarctic sponges and the corresponding surrounding seawater microbial communities. Their most resolved taxonomic assignation is included a side each OTU. Numbers represent taxonomic resolution level of the assignation, with (2) = Phylum, (3) = Class, (4) = Order, (5) = Family and (6) = Genus. Cluster above heatmap was generated using weighted Unifrac distance and group average clustering method. Color keys represent square root of relative abundance (in percentage). MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens; SW: surrounding seawater sample.
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pone.0138837.g003: OTU distribution and clustering.Heatmaps representing the relative abundance (50 most abundant OTUs) of bacterial/archaeal (A) and eukaryote (B) taxa associated to Antarctic sponges and the corresponding surrounding seawater microbial communities. Their most resolved taxonomic assignation is included a side each OTU. Numbers represent taxonomic resolution level of the assignation, with (2) = Phylum, (3) = Class, (4) = Order, (5) = Family and (6) = Genus. Cluster above heatmap was generated using weighted Unifrac distance and group average clustering method. Color keys represent square root of relative abundance (in percentage). MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens; SW: surrounding seawater sample.

Mentions: To compare microbial communities associated to Antarctic sponges among them and with the planktonic surrounding community, OTU-based similarity analyses using weighted Unifrac distances were performed. Similarity patterns do not follow the same trends between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote communities. Group average clustering shows that bacterial/archaeal communities are at least 30% dissimilar from each other (Fig 3A, cluster). The seawater bacterial/archaeal planktonic community clustered with sponge samples and the community from Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp. stood out as the most dissimilar, with a 73% of dissimilarity. In contrast, eukaryote communities were only 16% dissimilar among them, with a maximum dissimilarity of 61% in the case of the surrounding seawater community (Fig 3B, cluster). Overall, eukaryote communities were 10% more similar among themselves, than bacterial/archaeal communities. Microbial eukaryotes associated to Clathria sp. and L. antarctica were the most homogeneous, albeit over 50% distinct from the communities of all other sponges.


Characterization of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryote Symbionts from Antarctic Sponges Reveals a High Diversity at a Three-Domain Level and a Particular Signature for This Ecosystem.

Rodríguez-Marconi S, De la Iglesia R, Díez B, Fonseca CA, Hajdu E, Trefault N - PLoS ONE (2015)

OTU distribution and clustering.Heatmaps representing the relative abundance (50 most abundant OTUs) of bacterial/archaeal (A) and eukaryote (B) taxa associated to Antarctic sponges and the corresponding surrounding seawater microbial communities. Their most resolved taxonomic assignation is included a side each OTU. Numbers represent taxonomic resolution level of the assignation, with (2) = Phylum, (3) = Class, (4) = Order, (5) = Family and (6) = Genus. Cluster above heatmap was generated using weighted Unifrac distance and group average clustering method. Color keys represent square root of relative abundance (in percentage). MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens; SW: surrounding seawater sample.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589366&req=5

pone.0138837.g003: OTU distribution and clustering.Heatmaps representing the relative abundance (50 most abundant OTUs) of bacterial/archaeal (A) and eukaryote (B) taxa associated to Antarctic sponges and the corresponding surrounding seawater microbial communities. Their most resolved taxonomic assignation is included a side each OTU. Numbers represent taxonomic resolution level of the assignation, with (2) = Phylum, (3) = Class, (4) = Order, (5) = Family and (6) = Genus. Cluster above heatmap was generated using weighted Unifrac distance and group average clustering method. Color keys represent square root of relative abundance (in percentage). MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens; SW: surrounding seawater sample.
Mentions: To compare microbial communities associated to Antarctic sponges among them and with the planktonic surrounding community, OTU-based similarity analyses using weighted Unifrac distances were performed. Similarity patterns do not follow the same trends between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote communities. Group average clustering shows that bacterial/archaeal communities are at least 30% dissimilar from each other (Fig 3A, cluster). The seawater bacterial/archaeal planktonic community clustered with sponge samples and the community from Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp. stood out as the most dissimilar, with a 73% of dissimilarity. In contrast, eukaryote communities were only 16% dissimilar among them, with a maximum dissimilarity of 61% in the case of the surrounding seawater community (Fig 3B, cluster). Overall, eukaryote communities were 10% more similar among themselves, than bacterial/archaeal communities. Microbial eukaryotes associated to Clathria sp. and L. antarctica were the most homogeneous, albeit over 50% distinct from the communities of all other sponges.

Bottom Line: In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities.We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment.Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Sponge-associated microbial communities include members from the three domains of life. In the case of bacteria, they are diverse, host specific and different from the surrounding seawater. However, little is known about the diversity and specificity of Eukarya and Archaea living in association with marine sponges. This knowledge gap is even greater regarding sponges from regions other than temperate and tropical environments. In Antarctica, marine sponges are abundant and important members of the benthos, structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem. In this study, we used high throughput ribosomal gene sequencing to investigate the three-domain diversity and community composition from eight different Antarctic sponges. Taxonomic identification reveals that they belong to families Acarnidae, Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, Hymeniacidonidae, Leucettidae, Microcionidae, and Myxillidae. Our study indicates that there are different diversity and similarity patterns between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote microbial symbionts from these Antarctic marine sponges, indicating inherent differences in how organisms from different domains establish symbiotic relationships. In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities. We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus