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Characterization of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryote Symbionts from Antarctic Sponges Reveals a High Diversity at a Three-Domain Level and a Particular Signature for This Ecosystem.

Rodríguez-Marconi S, De la Iglesia R, Díez B, Fonseca CA, Hajdu E, Trefault N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities.We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment.Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Sponge-associated microbial communities include members from the three domains of life. In the case of bacteria, they are diverse, host specific and different from the surrounding seawater. However, little is known about the diversity and specificity of Eukarya and Archaea living in association with marine sponges. This knowledge gap is even greater regarding sponges from regions other than temperate and tropical environments. In Antarctica, marine sponges are abundant and important members of the benthos, structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem. In this study, we used high throughput ribosomal gene sequencing to investigate the three-domain diversity and community composition from eight different Antarctic sponges. Taxonomic identification reveals that they belong to families Acarnidae, Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, Hymeniacidonidae, Leucettidae, Microcionidae, and Myxillidae. Our study indicates that there are different diversity and similarity patterns between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote microbial symbionts from these Antarctic marine sponges, indicating inherent differences in how organisms from different domains establish symbiotic relationships. In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities. We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Taxonomic composition.Taxonomic distribution of assigned tag sequences of Antarctic sponge-associated and surrounding seawater (SW) microbial communities. Bars represent relative abundance of sequences belonging to given classes superior to 0.5%. (A) Bacteria/Archaea assigned with the Silva database. (B) Eukaryotes assigned with the PR2 database. MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens; SW: surrounding seawater sample.
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pone.0138837.g002: Taxonomic composition.Taxonomic distribution of assigned tag sequences of Antarctic sponge-associated and surrounding seawater (SW) microbial communities. Bars represent relative abundance of sequences belonging to given classes superior to 0.5%. (A) Bacteria/Archaea assigned with the Silva database. (B) Eukaryotes assigned with the PR2 database. MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens; SW: surrounding seawater sample.

Mentions: A total of 25 bacterial phyla were detected in sponges, and 14 of them were present also in surrounding seawater. In the case of Archaea, the same two phyla were detected in sponges and in seawater (Figure A in S2 Fig). Dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Thaumarchaeota and Planctomycetes. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes mostly dominated seawater planktonic community. No evidence for photoautotrophic community members was found among bacterial/archaeal taxa, neither in those associated to sponges, nor in those retrieved from the surrounding seawater. In the case of eukaryotes, sequences were classified into eight different supergroups (Figure B in S2 Fig). Dominant supergroups were Stramenopiles, Alveolata and Hacrobia. The seawater planktonic community was dominated by Stramenopiles and Alveolates. At a higher taxonomic resolution level, 13 bacterial/archaeal and 14 eukaryal classes were identified at a relative abundance higher than 0.5% (Fig 2).


Characterization of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryote Symbionts from Antarctic Sponges Reveals a High Diversity at a Three-Domain Level and a Particular Signature for This Ecosystem.

Rodríguez-Marconi S, De la Iglesia R, Díez B, Fonseca CA, Hajdu E, Trefault N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Taxonomic composition.Taxonomic distribution of assigned tag sequences of Antarctic sponge-associated and surrounding seawater (SW) microbial communities. Bars represent relative abundance of sequences belonging to given classes superior to 0.5%. (A) Bacteria/Archaea assigned with the Silva database. (B) Eukaryotes assigned with the PR2 database. MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens; SW: surrounding seawater sample.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589366&req=5

pone.0138837.g002: Taxonomic composition.Taxonomic distribution of assigned tag sequences of Antarctic sponge-associated and surrounding seawater (SW) microbial communities. Bars represent relative abundance of sequences belonging to given classes superior to 0.5%. (A) Bacteria/Archaea assigned with the Silva database. (B) Eukaryotes assigned with the PR2 database. MyxB: Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp.; Clat: Clathria sp.; uDem: undetermined Demospongiae; Kvar: Kirkpatrickia variolosa; Htor: Hymeniacidon torquata; Lant: Leucetta Antarctica; HalG: Haliclona (Gellius) sp.; Mann: Megaciella annectens; SW: surrounding seawater sample.
Mentions: A total of 25 bacterial phyla were detected in sponges, and 14 of them were present also in surrounding seawater. In the case of Archaea, the same two phyla were detected in sponges and in seawater (Figure A in S2 Fig). Dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Thaumarchaeota and Planctomycetes. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes mostly dominated seawater planktonic community. No evidence for photoautotrophic community members was found among bacterial/archaeal taxa, neither in those associated to sponges, nor in those retrieved from the surrounding seawater. In the case of eukaryotes, sequences were classified into eight different supergroups (Figure B in S2 Fig). Dominant supergroups were Stramenopiles, Alveolata and Hacrobia. The seawater planktonic community was dominated by Stramenopiles and Alveolates. At a higher taxonomic resolution level, 13 bacterial/archaeal and 14 eukaryal classes were identified at a relative abundance higher than 0.5% (Fig 2).

Bottom Line: In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities.We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment.Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Sponge-associated microbial communities include members from the three domains of life. In the case of bacteria, they are diverse, host specific and different from the surrounding seawater. However, little is known about the diversity and specificity of Eukarya and Archaea living in association with marine sponges. This knowledge gap is even greater regarding sponges from regions other than temperate and tropical environments. In Antarctica, marine sponges are abundant and important members of the benthos, structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem. In this study, we used high throughput ribosomal gene sequencing to investigate the three-domain diversity and community composition from eight different Antarctic sponges. Taxonomic identification reveals that they belong to families Acarnidae, Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, Hymeniacidonidae, Leucettidae, Microcionidae, and Myxillidae. Our study indicates that there are different diversity and similarity patterns between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote microbial symbionts from these Antarctic marine sponges, indicating inherent differences in how organisms from different domains establish symbiotic relationships. In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities. We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus