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Characterization of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryote Symbionts from Antarctic Sponges Reveals a High Diversity at a Three-Domain Level and a Particular Signature for This Ecosystem.

Rodríguez-Marconi S, De la Iglesia R, Díez B, Fonseca CA, Hajdu E, Trefault N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities.We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment.Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Sponge-associated microbial communities include members from the three domains of life. In the case of bacteria, they are diverse, host specific and different from the surrounding seawater. However, little is known about the diversity and specificity of Eukarya and Archaea living in association with marine sponges. This knowledge gap is even greater regarding sponges from regions other than temperate and tropical environments. In Antarctica, marine sponges are abundant and important members of the benthos, structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem. In this study, we used high throughput ribosomal gene sequencing to investigate the three-domain diversity and community composition from eight different Antarctic sponges. Taxonomic identification reveals that they belong to families Acarnidae, Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, Hymeniacidonidae, Leucettidae, Microcionidae, and Myxillidae. Our study indicates that there are different diversity and similarity patterns between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote microbial symbionts from these Antarctic marine sponges, indicating inherent differences in how organisms from different domains establish symbiotic relationships. In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities. We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Diversity measures.Non-parametric Shannon and Chao1 estimator calculated with sequences rarefied to the sample with minimum sequence number (Clathria sp. with 53,038 and Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp. with 907 sequences for Bacteria/Archaea and Eukarya, respectively). SW: surrounding seawater sample.
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pone.0138837.g001: Diversity measures.Non-parametric Shannon and Chao1 estimator calculated with sequences rarefied to the sample with minimum sequence number (Clathria sp. with 53,038 and Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp. with 907 sequences for Bacteria/Archaea and Eukarya, respectively). SW: surrounding seawater sample.

Mentions: Ecological indices showed that, in general, bacterial/archaeal communities are richer and more diverse than eukaryote communities and that diversity patterns from sponge-associated microbiomes do not follow the same trend when comparing the two dataset (Fig 1). In the case of sponge associated bacterial/archaeal communities, mean and s.d. Observed richness (Sobs) was 1,195 ± 501, Expected richness (Chao1) was 1,590 ± 519, non-parametric Shannon (H’) was 3.1 ± 1.25 and Simpson (D) was 0.23 ± 0.21 (S2 Table). For the surrounding planktonic community, Sobs, Chao1 and D values were lower than the mean calculated for sponges. In contrast, H’ index was higher than the mean calculated for the eight sponges, with only two of them (i.e. K. variolosa and Haliclona (Gellius) sp.) displaying higher H’ values. In the case of microbial eukaryotes, surrounding planktonic community show lower Sobs, Chao1, H’ and D values than most sponge microbiomes (the only exception was E7) (S2 Table). Taken together, these results indicate that Bacteria/Archaea associated communities were less diverse than the surrounding seawater communities, while in the case of Eukarya associated communities, these were more diverse than their planktonic counterparts.


Characterization of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryote Symbionts from Antarctic Sponges Reveals a High Diversity at a Three-Domain Level and a Particular Signature for This Ecosystem.

Rodríguez-Marconi S, De la Iglesia R, Díez B, Fonseca CA, Hajdu E, Trefault N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Diversity measures.Non-parametric Shannon and Chao1 estimator calculated with sequences rarefied to the sample with minimum sequence number (Clathria sp. with 53,038 and Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp. with 907 sequences for Bacteria/Archaea and Eukarya, respectively). SW: surrounding seawater sample.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589366&req=5

pone.0138837.g001: Diversity measures.Non-parametric Shannon and Chao1 estimator calculated with sequences rarefied to the sample with minimum sequence number (Clathria sp. with 53,038 and Myxilla (Burtonanchora) sp. with 907 sequences for Bacteria/Archaea and Eukarya, respectively). SW: surrounding seawater sample.
Mentions: Ecological indices showed that, in general, bacterial/archaeal communities are richer and more diverse than eukaryote communities and that diversity patterns from sponge-associated microbiomes do not follow the same trend when comparing the two dataset (Fig 1). In the case of sponge associated bacterial/archaeal communities, mean and s.d. Observed richness (Sobs) was 1,195 ± 501, Expected richness (Chao1) was 1,590 ± 519, non-parametric Shannon (H’) was 3.1 ± 1.25 and Simpson (D) was 0.23 ± 0.21 (S2 Table). For the surrounding planktonic community, Sobs, Chao1 and D values were lower than the mean calculated for sponges. In contrast, H’ index was higher than the mean calculated for the eight sponges, with only two of them (i.e. K. variolosa and Haliclona (Gellius) sp.) displaying higher H’ values. In the case of microbial eukaryotes, surrounding planktonic community show lower Sobs, Chao1, H’ and D values than most sponge microbiomes (the only exception was E7) (S2 Table). Taken together, these results indicate that Bacteria/Archaea associated communities were less diverse than the surrounding seawater communities, while in the case of Eukarya associated communities, these were more diverse than their planktonic counterparts.

Bottom Line: In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities.We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment.Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Sponge-associated microbial communities include members from the three domains of life. In the case of bacteria, they are diverse, host specific and different from the surrounding seawater. However, little is known about the diversity and specificity of Eukarya and Archaea living in association with marine sponges. This knowledge gap is even greater regarding sponges from regions other than temperate and tropical environments. In Antarctica, marine sponges are abundant and important members of the benthos, structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem. In this study, we used high throughput ribosomal gene sequencing to investigate the three-domain diversity and community composition from eight different Antarctic sponges. Taxonomic identification reveals that they belong to families Acarnidae, Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, Hymeniacidonidae, Leucettidae, Microcionidae, and Myxillidae. Our study indicates that there are different diversity and similarity patterns between bacterial/archaeal and eukaryote microbial symbionts from these Antarctic marine sponges, indicating inherent differences in how organisms from different domains establish symbiotic relationships. In general, when considering diversity indices and number of phyla detected, sponge-associated communities are more diverse than the planktonic communities. We conclude that three-domain microbial communities from Antarctic sponges are different from surrounding planktonic communities, expanding previous observations for Bacteria and including the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, we reveal differences in the composition of the sponge associated bacterial assemblages between Antarctic and tropical-temperate environments and the presence of a highly complex microbial eukaryote community, suggesting a particular signature for Antarctic sponges, different to that reported from other ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.