Limits...
Using Fish Population Metrics to Compare the Effects of Artificial Reef Density.

Froehlich CY, Kline RJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In the present study, the effects of reef density were assessed for fish communities and sizes of economically valuable Lutjanus campechanus 13 km off Port Mansfield, Texas, at a reef composed of more than 4000 concrete culverts.Fish communities did not significantly differ among density categories; however, highest species richness and total abundances were observed at intermediate culvert densities and at natural reefs.Whereas the abundance of L. campechanus did not differ among density categories, mean total lengths of L. campechanus were greatest at the lower density.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Artificial reefs continue to be added as habitat throughout the world, yet questions remain about how reef design affects fish diversity and abundance. In the present study, the effects of reef density were assessed for fish communities and sizes of economically valuable Lutjanus campechanus 13 km off Port Mansfield, Texas, at a reef composed of more than 4000 concrete culverts. The study spanned from May to June in 2013 and 2014, and sites sampled included natural reefs, bare areas, and varying culvert patch density categories, ranging from 1-190 culverts. Abundances of adults and species evenness of juvenile populations differed between the years. Fish communities did not significantly differ among density categories; however, highest species richness and total abundances were observed at intermediate culvert densities and at natural reefs. Whereas the abundance of L. campechanus did not differ among density categories, mean total lengths of L. campechanus were greatest at the lower density. Our findings suggest that reefs should be deployed with intermediate patch density of 71-120 culverts in a 30-m radius to yield the highest fish abundances.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Total abundances, (b) species richness, (c) species evenness, and (d) Shannon-Weaver indices of fish communities in varying reef categories in 2014.CC1: 1–30 culverts, CC2: 31–70 culverts, CC3: 71–120 culverts, CC4: 121–190 culverts, and Natural: naturally-occurring reefs. Error bars represent standard error (± 1). Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences (P > 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589336&req=5

pone.0139444.g003: (a) Total abundances, (b) species richness, (c) species evenness, and (d) Shannon-Weaver indices of fish communities in varying reef categories in 2014.CC1: 1–30 culverts, CC2: 31–70 culverts, CC3: 71–120 culverts, CC4: 121–190 culverts, and Natural: naturally-occurring reefs. Error bars represent standard error (± 1). Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences (P > 0.05).

Mentions: In 2014, B. capriscus, Haemulon aurolineatum, Halichoeres bivittatus, L. campechanus, P. marmoreus, and S. subligarius were the most abundant species censused. Fish community compositions, including all adults and all juveniles, did not significantly differ among reef categories in 2014 (Fig 2a, pseudo-F(4,15) = 1.516, P = 0.076), in multivariate analyses. Total abundance of all fishes significantly varied among reef categories (Welch statistic = 11.899, DF1 = 4, DF2 = 6.166, P = 0.005). Significantly higher total abundances of fishes were observed at CC3, 282 ± 7 individuals, than at CC4, 120 ± 26 individuals (Fig 3a, Games-Howell: P = 0.026). Other species indices were not significantly different among reef categories. However, category CC3 and natural sites consistently had the highest observed values of total abundance, species evenness, and diversity (Fig 3). CLUSTER analysis produced two significant clusters of samples (Fig 2a, SIMPROF: π = 4.18, P = 0.010). Cluster-1 contained all natural and CC3 sites in addition to some sites for CC1, CC2 and CC4. Cluster-2 included the remaining sites from CC1, CC2 and CC4 categories. SIMPER indicated that B. capriscus, E. adscensionis, Haemulon aurolineatum, Halichoeres bivittatus, L. campechanus, L. griseus, Parablennius marmoreus, Pareques umbrosus, Seriola dumerili, and Stegastes variabilis exhibited higher abundances in Cluster-1. Epinephelus adscensionis was only observed in Cluster-1, whereas Archosargus probatocephalus was observed in higher abundances in Cluster-2.


Using Fish Population Metrics to Compare the Effects of Artificial Reef Density.

Froehlich CY, Kline RJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

(a) Total abundances, (b) species richness, (c) species evenness, and (d) Shannon-Weaver indices of fish communities in varying reef categories in 2014.CC1: 1–30 culverts, CC2: 31–70 culverts, CC3: 71–120 culverts, CC4: 121–190 culverts, and Natural: naturally-occurring reefs. Error bars represent standard error (± 1). Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences (P > 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589336&req=5

pone.0139444.g003: (a) Total abundances, (b) species richness, (c) species evenness, and (d) Shannon-Weaver indices of fish communities in varying reef categories in 2014.CC1: 1–30 culverts, CC2: 31–70 culverts, CC3: 71–120 culverts, CC4: 121–190 culverts, and Natural: naturally-occurring reefs. Error bars represent standard error (± 1). Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences (P > 0.05).
Mentions: In 2014, B. capriscus, Haemulon aurolineatum, Halichoeres bivittatus, L. campechanus, P. marmoreus, and S. subligarius were the most abundant species censused. Fish community compositions, including all adults and all juveniles, did not significantly differ among reef categories in 2014 (Fig 2a, pseudo-F(4,15) = 1.516, P = 0.076), in multivariate analyses. Total abundance of all fishes significantly varied among reef categories (Welch statistic = 11.899, DF1 = 4, DF2 = 6.166, P = 0.005). Significantly higher total abundances of fishes were observed at CC3, 282 ± 7 individuals, than at CC4, 120 ± 26 individuals (Fig 3a, Games-Howell: P = 0.026). Other species indices were not significantly different among reef categories. However, category CC3 and natural sites consistently had the highest observed values of total abundance, species evenness, and diversity (Fig 3). CLUSTER analysis produced two significant clusters of samples (Fig 2a, SIMPROF: π = 4.18, P = 0.010). Cluster-1 contained all natural and CC3 sites in addition to some sites for CC1, CC2 and CC4. Cluster-2 included the remaining sites from CC1, CC2 and CC4 categories. SIMPER indicated that B. capriscus, E. adscensionis, Haemulon aurolineatum, Halichoeres bivittatus, L. campechanus, L. griseus, Parablennius marmoreus, Pareques umbrosus, Seriola dumerili, and Stegastes variabilis exhibited higher abundances in Cluster-1. Epinephelus adscensionis was only observed in Cluster-1, whereas Archosargus probatocephalus was observed in higher abundances in Cluster-2.

Bottom Line: In the present study, the effects of reef density were assessed for fish communities and sizes of economically valuable Lutjanus campechanus 13 km off Port Mansfield, Texas, at a reef composed of more than 4000 concrete culverts.Fish communities did not significantly differ among density categories; however, highest species richness and total abundances were observed at intermediate culvert densities and at natural reefs.Whereas the abundance of L. campechanus did not differ among density categories, mean total lengths of L. campechanus were greatest at the lower density.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Artificial reefs continue to be added as habitat throughout the world, yet questions remain about how reef design affects fish diversity and abundance. In the present study, the effects of reef density were assessed for fish communities and sizes of economically valuable Lutjanus campechanus 13 km off Port Mansfield, Texas, at a reef composed of more than 4000 concrete culverts. The study spanned from May to June in 2013 and 2014, and sites sampled included natural reefs, bare areas, and varying culvert patch density categories, ranging from 1-190 culverts. Abundances of adults and species evenness of juvenile populations differed between the years. Fish communities did not significantly differ among density categories; however, highest species richness and total abundances were observed at intermediate culvert densities and at natural reefs. Whereas the abundance of L. campechanus did not differ among density categories, mean total lengths of L. campechanus were greatest at the lower density. Our findings suggest that reefs should be deployed with intermediate patch density of 71-120 culverts in a 30-m radius to yield the highest fish abundances.

No MeSH data available.