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Analysis of Transmission of MRSA and ESBL-E among Pigs and Farm Personnel.

Schmithausen RM, Schulze-Geisthoevel SV, Stemmer F, El-Jade M, Reif M, Hack S, Meilaender A, Montabauer G, Fimmers R, Parcina M, Hoerauf A, Exner M, Petersen B, Bierbaum G, Bekeredjian-Ding I - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: ESBL-E positive air samples were detected on 6 out of 35 farms but no pig-to-human transmission was found.Molecular typing revealed transmission of ESBL-E within the pig compartments; however, related strains were also found on unrelated farms.Altogether, our data define stable air (MRSA), pig compartments (ESBL-E) and abattoir waiting areas (MRSA and ESBL-E) as major hot spots for transmission of MRSA and/or ESBL-E along the pig production chain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Institute of Animal Science, Preventive Health Management Group, University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 7-9, Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Livestock-associated bacteria with resistance to two or more antibiotic drug classes have heightened our awareness for the consequences of antibiotic consumption and spread of resistant bacterial strains in the veterinary field. In this study we assessed the prevalence of concomitant colonization with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) and enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBL-E) in farms at the German-Dutch border region. Nasal colonization of pigs with MRSA (113/547 (20.7%)) was less frequent than rectal colonization with ESBL-E (163/540 (30.2%)). On the individual farm level MRSA correlated with ESBL-E recovery. The data further provide information on prevalence at different stages of pig production, including abattoirs, as well as in air samples and humans living and working on the farms. Notably, MRSA was detected in stable air samples of 34 out of 35 pig farms, highlighting air as an important MRSA transmission reservoir. The majority of MRSA isolates, including those from humans, displayed tetracycline resistance and spa types t011 and t034 characteristic for LA-MRSA, demonstrating transmission from pigs to humans. ESBL-E positive air samples were detected on 6 out of 35 farms but no pig-to-human transmission was found. Detection of ESBL-E, e.g. mostly Escherichia coli with CTX-M-type ESBL, was limited to these six farms. Molecular typing revealed transmission of ESBL-E within the pig compartments; however, related strains were also found on unrelated farms. Although our data suggest that acquisition of MRSA and ESBL-E might occur among pigs in the abattoirs, MRSA and ESBL-E were not detected on the carcasses. Altogether, our data define stable air (MRSA), pig compartments (ESBL-E) and abattoir waiting areas (MRSA and ESBL-E) as major hot spots for transmission of MRSA and/or ESBL-E along the pig production chain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of antibiotic usage and antibiotic resistance patterns on farms.A: Antibiotic substances administered on investigated farms. (*) Betalactams comprise ampicillin, amoxicillin, other penicillins and cephalosporins. Carbapenems, aminoglycosides and tigecycline were not applied (n.a.). B: Susceptibility of spa typed MRSA isolates obtained on farms given as % resistant. C: Susceptibility of tested ESBL-E isolates is provided as % resistant.
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pone.0138173.g005: Comparison of antibiotic usage and antibiotic resistance patterns on farms.A: Antibiotic substances administered on investigated farms. (*) Betalactams comprise ampicillin, amoxicillin, other penicillins and cephalosporins. Carbapenems, aminoglycosides and tigecycline were not applied (n.a.). B: Susceptibility of spa typed MRSA isolates obtained on farms given as % resistant. C: Susceptibility of tested ESBL-E isolates is provided as % resistant.

Mentions: The colonization with drug resistant bacteria was compared to the therapeutic usage of antibiotics on the farms. Our analysis showed that betalactam antibiotics and tetracyclines were most frequently administered (24 of 35 (68.6%) and 25 of 35 (71.4%) farms, respectively), thus providing the selective pressure that allows the emergence of MRSA and ESBL-E (Fig 5A). While MRSA and ESBL-E are always resistant to betalactams nearly 100% of MRSA isolates displayed resistance to tetracyclines (Fig 5B) and ESBL-E were resistant to tetracycline in 59.2% (42/71) and to doxycycline in 58.7% (41/71) (Fig 5C). Further analysis showed that on farms that with discontinuation of betalactams (farms B03, B05, B08, B09, B22, B24, B25, B28, B29, B34, B35) the MRSA prevalence was categorized as A or B in 63.6% (7/11) farms while category A or B was found in 58.3% (14/24) of farms that used betalactams. The ESBL-E prevalence lay in category A or B in 36.4% (4/11) of farms that did not administer betalactams and in 50% (12/24 farms that used betalactams. Notably, in 8/10 (80%) farms that suspended tetracycline usage (farms B02, B04, B05, B08, B09, B10, B17, B18, B25, B27) MRSA prevalence was classified as category A or B while in farms administering tetracyclines MRSA category A or B was found on only 13/25 (52%) of farms (see S10 Table).


Analysis of Transmission of MRSA and ESBL-E among Pigs and Farm Personnel.

Schmithausen RM, Schulze-Geisthoevel SV, Stemmer F, El-Jade M, Reif M, Hack S, Meilaender A, Montabauer G, Fimmers R, Parcina M, Hoerauf A, Exner M, Petersen B, Bierbaum G, Bekeredjian-Ding I - PLoS ONE (2015)

Comparison of antibiotic usage and antibiotic resistance patterns on farms.A: Antibiotic substances administered on investigated farms. (*) Betalactams comprise ampicillin, amoxicillin, other penicillins and cephalosporins. Carbapenems, aminoglycosides and tigecycline were not applied (n.a.). B: Susceptibility of spa typed MRSA isolates obtained on farms given as % resistant. C: Susceptibility of tested ESBL-E isolates is provided as % resistant.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589321&req=5

pone.0138173.g005: Comparison of antibiotic usage and antibiotic resistance patterns on farms.A: Antibiotic substances administered on investigated farms. (*) Betalactams comprise ampicillin, amoxicillin, other penicillins and cephalosporins. Carbapenems, aminoglycosides and tigecycline were not applied (n.a.). B: Susceptibility of spa typed MRSA isolates obtained on farms given as % resistant. C: Susceptibility of tested ESBL-E isolates is provided as % resistant.
Mentions: The colonization with drug resistant bacteria was compared to the therapeutic usage of antibiotics on the farms. Our analysis showed that betalactam antibiotics and tetracyclines were most frequently administered (24 of 35 (68.6%) and 25 of 35 (71.4%) farms, respectively), thus providing the selective pressure that allows the emergence of MRSA and ESBL-E (Fig 5A). While MRSA and ESBL-E are always resistant to betalactams nearly 100% of MRSA isolates displayed resistance to tetracyclines (Fig 5B) and ESBL-E were resistant to tetracycline in 59.2% (42/71) and to doxycycline in 58.7% (41/71) (Fig 5C). Further analysis showed that on farms that with discontinuation of betalactams (farms B03, B05, B08, B09, B22, B24, B25, B28, B29, B34, B35) the MRSA prevalence was categorized as A or B in 63.6% (7/11) farms while category A or B was found in 58.3% (14/24) of farms that used betalactams. The ESBL-E prevalence lay in category A or B in 36.4% (4/11) of farms that did not administer betalactams and in 50% (12/24 farms that used betalactams. Notably, in 8/10 (80%) farms that suspended tetracycline usage (farms B02, B04, B05, B08, B09, B10, B17, B18, B25, B27) MRSA prevalence was classified as category A or B while in farms administering tetracyclines MRSA category A or B was found on only 13/25 (52%) of farms (see S10 Table).

Bottom Line: ESBL-E positive air samples were detected on 6 out of 35 farms but no pig-to-human transmission was found.Molecular typing revealed transmission of ESBL-E within the pig compartments; however, related strains were also found on unrelated farms.Altogether, our data define stable air (MRSA), pig compartments (ESBL-E) and abattoir waiting areas (MRSA and ESBL-E) as major hot spots for transmission of MRSA and/or ESBL-E along the pig production chain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Institute of Animal Science, Preventive Health Management Group, University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 7-9, Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Livestock-associated bacteria with resistance to two or more antibiotic drug classes have heightened our awareness for the consequences of antibiotic consumption and spread of resistant bacterial strains in the veterinary field. In this study we assessed the prevalence of concomitant colonization with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) and enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBL-E) in farms at the German-Dutch border region. Nasal colonization of pigs with MRSA (113/547 (20.7%)) was less frequent than rectal colonization with ESBL-E (163/540 (30.2%)). On the individual farm level MRSA correlated with ESBL-E recovery. The data further provide information on prevalence at different stages of pig production, including abattoirs, as well as in air samples and humans living and working on the farms. Notably, MRSA was detected in stable air samples of 34 out of 35 pig farms, highlighting air as an important MRSA transmission reservoir. The majority of MRSA isolates, including those from humans, displayed tetracycline resistance and spa types t011 and t034 characteristic for LA-MRSA, demonstrating transmission from pigs to humans. ESBL-E positive air samples were detected on 6 out of 35 farms but no pig-to-human transmission was found. Detection of ESBL-E, e.g. mostly Escherichia coli with CTX-M-type ESBL, was limited to these six farms. Molecular typing revealed transmission of ESBL-E within the pig compartments; however, related strains were also found on unrelated farms. Although our data suggest that acquisition of MRSA and ESBL-E might occur among pigs in the abattoirs, MRSA and ESBL-E were not detected on the carcasses. Altogether, our data define stable air (MRSA), pig compartments (ESBL-E) and abattoir waiting areas (MRSA and ESBL-E) as major hot spots for transmission of MRSA and/or ESBL-E along the pig production chain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus